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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Asteroideae
Tribus: Heliantheae
Subtribus: Engelmanniinae
Genus: Chrysogonum
Species: C. leandrii – C. madagascariense – C. perrieri – C. stenocephalum – C. virginianum

Source(s) of checklist:

Chrysogonum L., Sp. Pl. 2: 920 (1753); Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 391 (1754).

Type species: Chrysogonum virginianum L.


Cargilla Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 130 (1763).
Diotostephus Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat., ed. 2. 48: 543 (1827).

Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus II: 920. Reference page.
Linnaeus, C. 1754. Genera Plantarum, ed. 5: 391. Reference page.


International Plant Names Index. 2018. Chrysogonum. Published online. Accessed: Feb. 06 2018.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Chrysogonum in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Sep 16. Reference page.
The Plant List 2013. Chrysogonum in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Feb. 06. 2018. Chrysogonum. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Feb. 06.
Hassler, M. 2018. Chrysogonum. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Feb. 06. Reference page.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Chrysogonum in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 08-Apr-12.
Chrysogonum L. – Taxon details on Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).
Chrysogonum – Taxon details on National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).

Chrysogonum is a genus of flowering plants in the daisy family found only in eastern North America. Confusion regarding species that were named in Chrysogonum from other parts of the world, such as Madagascar, was clarified by Stuessy [2] who reduced the genus to having only a single species with two varieties. A similar treatment was proposed by Nesom,[3] although in that treatment 3 varieties were accepted.[4] The plants are low-growing terrestrial herbs with yellow flower heads containing both disc florets and ray florets. The genus is distinctive in having pistillate ray florets and staminate disk florets, and the pistil of the ray floret is fused to the adjacent phyllary as well as 3 paleae and their associated disk florets to form a "cypsela complex". The species is grown as an ornamental plant under the common name of Green and Gold, and is used primarily as a ground cover.[5][6][7][8][9]


Chrysogonum virginianum L. - eastern United States


Flann, C (ed) 2009+ Global Compositae Checklist Archived 2014-11-14 at
Stuessy, T. F. 1977. Revision of Chrysogonum (Compositae, Heliantheae). Rhodora 79: 190–202.
Nesom, G. L. 2001. Taxonomic review of Chrysogonum (Asteraceae: Heliantheae). Sida 19: 811–820.
Nowicki, Marcin; Schilling, Edward E.; Boggess, Sarah L.; Houston, Logan C.; Huff, Matthew L.; Staton, Margaret E.; Lampley, Jayne A.; Trigiano, Robert N. (February 2019). "Development and Characterization of Genic Microsatellites for the Ornamental Plant Green and Gold (Chrysogonum virginianum)". HortScience. 54 (2): 395–400. doi:10.21273/HORTSCI13739-18. ISSN 0018-5345.
Linnaeus, Carl von. 1753. Species Plantarum 2: 920-921 in Latin
Tropicos, Chrysogonum L.
Flora of North America, Chrysogonum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 920. 1753; Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 391. 1754.
Nesom, G. L. 2001. Taxonomic review of Chrysogonum (Asteraceae: Heliantheae). Sida 19: 811–820.
Stuessy, T. F. 1977. Revision of Chrysogonum (Compositae, Heliantheae). Rhodora 79: 190–202.

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