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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales

Familia: Asparagaceae
Subfamilia: Nolinoideae
Tribus: Dracaeneae
Genus: Dracaena
Overview of species

D. acaulis – D. acutissima – D. adamii – D. afromontana – D. aletriformis – D. americana – D. angustifolia – D. arborea – D. aubryana – D. aurea – D. bicolor – D. borneensis – D. brachyphylla – D. braunii – D. breviflora – D. bueana – D. bushii – D. calocephala – D. cambodiana – D. camerooniana – D. cantleyi – D. cerasifera – D. chiniana – D. cincta – D. cinnabari – D. cochinchinensis – D. concinna – D. conferta – D. congoensis – D. cristula – D. cubensis – D. curtisii – D. cuspidata – D. draco – D. ellenbeckiana – D. elliptica – D. fernaldii – D. finlaysonii – D. floribunda – D. fontanesiana – D. forbesii – D. fragrans – D. glomerata – D. goldieana – D. granulata – D. griffithii – D. haemanthoides – D. halapepe – D. halemanuensis – D. hewittii – D. hokouensis – D. hosei – D. impressivenia – D. jayniana – D. kaweesakii – D. kirkii – D. konaensis – D. kupensis – D. lancea – D. lancifolia – D. laxissima – D. longifolia – D. maingayi – D. mannii – D. marina – D. mokoko – D. multiflora – D. nitens – D. novoguineensis – D. nyangensis – D. ombet – D. ovata – D. pachyphylla – D. parviflora – D. penangensis – D. pendula – D. perrottetii – D. petiolata – D. phanerophlebia – D. phrynioides – D. porteri – D. praetermissa – D. purpurea – D. reflexa – D. rockii – D. rosulata – D. sanderiana – D. sarawakensis – D. scabra – D. serrulata – D. siamica – D. singapurensis – D. spicata – D. steudneri – D. surculosa – D. tamaranae – D. terniflora – D. tholloniana – D. thwaitesii – D. timorensis – D. trachystachys – D. transvaalensis – D. umbraculifera – D. umbratica – D. usambarensis – D. viridiflora – D. wakaensis – D. waltersiae – D. xiphophylla – D. yuccifolia

Dracaena L., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, 2: 229, 246 (1767). Often cited with the authorship "Vand. ex L." but Vandelli called the Dragontree Draco and put Dracaena in synonymy (Tropicos, 2015)

Lectotype species: Dracaena draco (L.) L. (designated by Rafinesque, Fl. Tell. 4: 17 (1838) ('1836'))


Draco Crantz, Duab. Drac. Arbor.: 13 (1768), nom. illeg.
Drakaina Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 17. (1838), orth. var.
Oedera Crantz, Duab. Drac. Arbor., 30. (1768)
Type species: Oedera dragonalis Crantz
Stoerkia Crantz, Duab. Drac. Arbor. 25. (1768)
Type species: Stoerkia draco (L.) Crantz
Terminalis Medik., Theodora: 83. (1786)
Type species: Terminalis angustifolia Medik.
Pleomele Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton, 245. (1796)
Type species: Pleomele fragrans (L.) Salisb.
Nemampsis Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 16. (1838)
Type species: Nemampsis ternifolia Raf.
Ezehlsia Lour. ex B.A.Gomes, Mem. Acad. Real Sci. Lisboa, 2 Cl. Sci. Moraes, n.s., 4(1): 29. (1868)
Type species: Ezehlsia palma Lour. ex Gomes
Stoerkea Baker, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 14: 523. (1875), isonym
Chrysodracon P.L.Lu & Morden, Syst. Bot. 39: 101 (2014)

Note: The proposed segregation of the Pleomele from Hawaii, as Chrysodracon (Lu & Morden, 2014) is not accepted by Govaerts et al. (2018) and so the above circumscription is a taxonomic opinion of Draceana s.l. excluding Sansevieria on morphological grounds until consensus is reached here and in the wider botanic community.
Native distribution areas:

Northern Africa
Canary Islands, Cape Verde†, Madeira.
West Tropical Africa
Benin, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierre Leone, Togo.
West-Central Tropical Africa
Burundi, Cabinda, Central African Republic, Cameroon, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gulf of Guinea Islands, Rwanda, Zaïre.
Northeast Tropical Africa
Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Socotra, Somalia, Sudan.
East Tropical Africa
Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda.
South Tropical Africa
Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe.
Southern Africa
Botswana, Cape Provinces, Namibia, KwaZulu-Natal, Free State, Swaziland, Northern Provinces.
Western Indian Ocean
Aldabra, Chagos Archipelago, Comoros, Mauritius, Madagascar, Réunion, Rodrigues, Seychelles.
Arabian Peninsula
Oman, Saudi Arabia, Yemen.
China South-Central, Hainan, China Southeast.
Indian Subcontinent
Assam, Bangladesh, East Himalaya, India, Sri Lanka.
Andaman Islands, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Nicobar Islands, Thailand, Vietnam.
Borneo, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Islands, Malaya, Maluku, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatera.
Bismarck Archipelago, New Guinea, Solomon Islands.
Northern Territory, Queensland.
Northwestern Pacific
Caroline Islands.
North-Central Pacific
Northern America
Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southwest, Mexico Southeast.
Southern America
Central America
Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama.
Western South America

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition

Linnaeus, C. 1767. Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 2: 229, 246.
Bos, J.J. 1984. Dracaena in West Africa. Agricultural University Wageningen Papers 84(1): 1–126. PDF
Christenhusz, M.J.M., Fay, M.F. & Byng, J.W. (eds). 2018. The Global Flora, Vol. 4: Special Edition, GLOVAP Nomenclature Part 1. Plant Gateway Ltd., Bradford. ISBN 978-0-9929993-5-3 PDFReference page.
Damen, T.H.J., Van der Burg, W.J, Wiland-Szymańska, J. & Sosef, M.S.M. 2018. Taxonomic novelties in African Dracaena (Dracaenaceae). Blumea 63(1): 31–53. DOI: 10.3767/blumea.2018.63.01.05 Open access. Reference page.
Jankalski, S. 2008. Subgenera and new combinations in Dracaena. Sansevieria 18: 17–21.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2018. Dracaena in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2018 Sept. 27. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2015. Dracaena. Published online. Accessed: Sept. 27 2015.
Lu, P.L. & Morden, C.W. 2014. Phylogenetic relationships among Dracenoid genera (Asparagaceae: Nolinoideae) inferred from chloroplast DNA loci. Systematic Botany 39: 90–104. DOI: 10.1600/036364414X678035 PDF from Research Gate Reference page.
Takawira-Nyenya, R., Mucina, L, Cardinal-McTeague, W.M. & Thiele, K.R. 2018. Sansevieria (Asparagaceae, Nolinoideae) is a herbaceous clade within Dracaena: inference from non-coding plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data. Phytotaxa 376(6): 254–276. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.376.6.2 Reference page. 2015. Dracaena. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 27 Sept. 2015.
Farr, E.R. & Zijlstra, G. (eds.) 1996 onwards. Dracaena in Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). Accessed: 2019 Mar 22.

Vernacular names

العربية: أيدع
azərbaycanca: Drasena
български: Драцена
català: Drago
čeština: Dračinec
Deutsch: Drachenbäume
English: Dragon trees
Esperanto: Draceno
eesti: Draakonipuu
فارسی: درخت اژدها
suomi: Traakkipuut eli lohikäärmepuut
Gaeilge: Draganchrann
hrvatski: Zmajevac
hornjoserbsce: Płon
magyar: Sárkányfa
հայերեն: Վիշապածառ
Bahasa Indonesia: Suji
日本語: ドラセナ属
Jawa: Suji
ქართული: დრაცენა
қазақша: Айдаһар ағашы
한국어: 드라카이나속
lietuvių: Dracena
latviešu: Dracēnas
Nederlands: Drakenboom
norsk: Draketreslekta
polski: Dracena
русский: Драцена
svenska: Dracenasläktet
українська: Драцена
Tiếng Việt: Chi Huyết giác
中文: 龙血树, 龙血树属
中文(简体): 龙血树属

Dracaena (/drəˈsiːnə/[2]) is a genus of about 120 species of trees and succulent shrubs.[3] The formerly accepted genera Pleomele and Sansevieria are now included in Dracaena. In the APG IV classification system, it is placed in the family Asparagaceae,[4] subfamily Nolinoideae (formerly the family Ruscaceae).[5][6] It has also formerly been separated (sometimes with Cordyline) into the family Dracaenaceae or placed in the Agavaceae (now Agavoideae).

The name dracaena is derived from the romanized form of the Ancient Greek δράκαινα – drakaina, "female dragon".[citation needed]

The majority of the species are native to Africa, southern Asia through to northern Australia, with two species in tropical Central America.


Species of Dracaena have a secondary thickening meristem in their trunk, termed Dracaenoid thickening by some authors,[citation needed] which is quite different from the thickening meristem found in dicotyledonous plants. This characteristic is shared with members of the Agavoideae and Xanthorrhoeoideae among other members of the Asparagales.

Dracaena species can be classified in two growth types: treelike dracaenas (Dracaena fragrans, Dracaena draco, Dracaena cinnabari), which have aboveground stems that branch from nodes after flowering, or if the growth tip is severed, and rhizomatous dracaenas (Dracaena trifasciata, Dracaena angolensis), which have underground rhizomes and leaves on the surface (ranging from straplike to cylindrical).[citation needed]

Many species of Dracaena are kept as houseplants due to tolerance of lower light and sparse watering.[7]


Plants of the World Online currently includes:[8]

Dracaena acaulis Baker
Dracaena acutissima Hua
Dracaena adamii Hepper
Dracaena aethiopica (Thunb.) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena afromontana Mildbr.
Dracaena aletriformis (Haw.) Bos (syn. D. latifolia)
Dracaena americana Donn.Sm. – Central America dragon tree
Dracaena angolensis (Welw. ex Carrière) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena angustifolia (Medik.) Roxb. (syn. D. australasica, D. ensiformis, D. fruticosa, D. linearifolia, D. menglaensis)
Dracaena arborea (Willd.) Link
Dracaena arborescens (Cornu ex Gérôme & Labroy) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena ascendens (L.E.Newton) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena aubryana Brongn. ex É.Morren (syn. D. thalioides)
Dracaena aubrytiana (Carrière) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena aurea H.Mann
Dracaena bacularis (Pfennig ex A.Butler & Jankalski) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena bagamoyensis (N.E.Br.) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena ballyi (L.E.Newton) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena bhitalae (Webb & Newton) Takaw.-Ny. & Mucina
Dracaena bicolor Hook.
Dracaena borneensis (Merr.) Jankalski
Dracaena brachyphylla Kurz
Dracaena braunii Engl. (syn. D. litoralis)
Dracaena breviflora Ridl.
Dracaena bueana Engl.
Dracaena bugandana Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena bukedea Takaw.-Ny. & Mucina
Dracaena burdettii (Chahin.) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena burmanica (N.E.Br.) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena bushii Damen
Dracaena calocephala Bos
Dracaena cambodiana Pierre ex Gagnep.
Dracaena camerooniana Baker
Dracaena canaliculata (Carrière) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena cantleyi Baker
Dracaena caulescens (N.E.Br.) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena cerasifera Hua
Dracaena chahinianii (Webb & Myklebust) Takaw.-Ny. & Mucina
Dracaena chiniana I.M.Turner
Dracaena cincta Baker
Dracaena cinnabari Balf.f. – Socotra dragon tree
Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C.Chen (syn. D. loureiroi)
Dracaena concinna Kunth
Dracaena conferta Ridl.
Dracaena congoensis Hua
Dracaena conspicua (N.E.Br.) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena cristula W.Bull
Dracaena cubensis Vict.
Dracaena curtisii Ridl.
Dracaena cuspidata Ridl.
Dracaena dawei (Stapf) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena deremensis (L.) Ker Gawl. (syn. D. fragrans) – striped dracaena, compact dracaena, corn plant, cornstalk dracaena
Dracaena dhofarica (T.A.McCoy & Lavranos) Takaw.-Ny. & Mucina
Dracaena dooneri (N.E.Br.) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena downsii (Chahin.) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena draco (L.) L. – Canary Islands dragon tree
Dracaena dumetescens (L.E.Newton) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena ebracteata (Cav.) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena eilensis (Chahin.) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena ellenbeckiana Engl. - Kedong Dracaena (Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda)[9][10][11]
Dracaena elliptica Thunb. & Dalm. (syn. D. gracilis, D. javanica, D. maculata)
Dracaena erythraeae (Mattei) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena fasciata (Cornu ex Gérôme & Labroy) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena fernaldii (H.St.John) Jankalski
Dracaena finlaysonii Baker
Dracaena floribunda Baker
Dracaena fontanesiana Schult. & Schult.f.
Dracaena forbesii (O.Deg.) Jankalski
Dracaena forskaliana (Schult. & Schult.f.) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena fragrans (L.) Ker Gawl. (syn. D. deremensis) – striped dracaena, compact dracaena, corn plant, cornstalk dracaena
Dracaena francisii (Chahin.) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena frequens (Chahin.) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena glomerata Baker
Dracaena goldieana Bullen ex Mast. & T.Moore
Dracaena gracillima (Chahin.) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena granulata Hook.f.
Dracaena griffithii Regel
Dracaena haemanthoides Bos ex Damen
Dracaena halapepe (H.St.John) Jankalski
Dracaena halemanuensis Jankalski
Dracaena hallii (Chahin.) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena hanningtonii Baker (syn. D. oldupai)
Dracaena hargeisana (Chahin.) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena hewittii Ridl.
Dracaena hokouensis G.Z.Ye
Dracaena hosei (Ridl.) Jankalski
Dracaena humiflora (D.J.Richards) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena hyacinthoides (L.) Mabb.
Dracaena impressivenia Yu H.Yan & H.J.Guo
Dracaena itumei (Mbugua) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena jayniana Wilkin & Suksathan
Dracaena kaweesakii Wilkin & Suksathan[12]
Dracaena kirkii Baker
Dracaena konaensis (H.St.John) Jankalski
Dracaena kupensis Mwachala, Cheek, Eb.Fisch. & Muasya
Dracaena laevifolia (R.H.Webb & L.E.Newton) Takaw.-Ny. & Mucina
Dracaena lancea Thunb. & Dalm.
Dracaena lancifolia (Ridl.) Jankalski
Dracaena lavranii (Webb & Myklebust) Takaw.-Ny. & Mucina
Dracaena laxissima Engl.
Dracaena liberica (Gérôme & Labroy) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena longiflora (Sims) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena longifolia Ridl.
Dracaena longistyla (la Croix) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena lunatifolia (L.E.Newton) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena maingayi Hook.f.
Dracaena malawiana Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena mannii Baker
Dracaena marina Bos ex Damen
Dracaena masoniana (Chahin.) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena mokoko Mwachala & Cheek
Dracaena multiflora Warb. ex P.Sarasin & Sarasin
Dracaena newtoniana (T.G.Forrest) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena nilotica (Baker) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena nitens Welw. ex Baker
Dracaena nitida (Chahin.) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena novoguineensis Gibbs
Dracaena nyangensis Pellegr.
Dracaena ombet Heuglin ex Kotschy & Peyr. – Gabal Elba dragon tree
Dracaena ovata Ker Gawl.
Dracaena pachyphylla Kurz
Dracaena parva (N.E.Br.) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena parviflora Baker
Dracaena patens (N.E.Br.) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena pearsonii (N.E.Br.) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena pedicellata (la Croix) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena penangensis Ridl.
Dracaena pendula Ridl.
Dracaena perrotii (O.Warburg) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena perrottetii Baker
Dracaena pethera Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena petiolata Hook.f.
Dracaena pfisteri (D.J.Richards) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena phanerophlebia Baker
Dracaena phillipsiae (N.E.Br.) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena phrynioides Hook.
Dracaena pinguicula (P.R.O.Bally) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena porteri Baker
Dracaena powellii (N.E.Br.) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena powysii (L.E.Newton) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena praetermissa Bos
Dracaena purpurea (Ridl.) Jankalski
Dracaena raffillii (N.E.Br.) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena reflexa Lam. – Pleomele dracaena or "Song of India"
D. reflexa var. marginata (syn. D. marginata) – red-edged dracaena or Madagascar dragon tree
Dracaena rockii (H.St.John) Jankalski
Dracaena rosulata Mwachala & Eb.Fisch.
Dracaena roxburghiana (Schult. & Schult.f.) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena sambiranensis (H.Perrier) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena sanderiana Engl. – ribbon dracaena, marketed as "lucky bamboo"
Dracaena sarawakensis (W.W.Sm.) Jankalski
Dracaena scabra Bos
Dracaena scimitariformis (D.J.Richards) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena senegambica (Baker) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena serpenta Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena serrulata Baker – Yemen dragon tree
Dracaena siamica Ridl.
Dracaena singapurensis Ridl.
Dracaena singularis (N.E.Br.) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena sinus-simiorum (Chahin.) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena sordida (N.E.Br.) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena spathulata Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena specksii (Webb & Myklebust) Takaw.-Ny. & Mucina
Dracaena spicata Roxb.
Dracaena steudneri Engl.
Dracaena stuckyi (God.-Leb.) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena subspicata (Baker) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena subtilis (N.E.Br.) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena suffruticosa (N.E.Br.) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena surculosa Lindl. – spotted or gold dust dracaena. Formerly D. godseffiana
Dracaena tamaranae Marrero Rodr., R.S.Almeira & M.Gonzáles-Martin
Dracaena terniflora Roxb.
Dracaena testudinea Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena tholloniana Hua
Dracaena thwaitesii Regel
Dracaena timorensis Kunth
Dracaena trachystachys Hook.f.
Dracaena transvaalensis Baker
Dracaena trifasciata (Prain) Mabb.
Dracaena umbraculifera Jacq.
Dracaena umbratica Ridl.
Dracaena usambarensis Engl.
Dracaena varians (N.E.Br.) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena viridiflora Engl. & K.Krause
Dracaena volkensii (Gürke) Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena wakaensis Damen & Quiroz
Dracaena waltersiae Damen
Dracaena xiphophylla Baker
Dracaena yuccifolia Ridl.
Dracaena zebra Byng & Christenh.
Dracaena zeylanica (L.) Mabb.

Formerly regarded as dracaena
Ambox current red Americas.svg

This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (June 2017)

Asparagus asparagoides (L.) Druce (as D. medeoloides L.f.)
Cordyline australis (G.Forst.) Endl. (as D. australis G.Forst.)
Cordyline fruticosa (L.) A.Chev. (as D. terminalis Lam.)
Cordyline indivisa (G.Forst.) Steud. (as D. indivisa G.Forst.)
Cordyline obtecta (Graham) Baker (as D. obtecta Graham)
Cordyline stricta (Sims) Endl. (as D. stricta Sims)
Dianella ensifolia (L.) DC. (as D. ensifolia L.)
Liriope graminifolia (L.) Baker (as D. graminifolia L.)
Lomandra filiformis (Thunb.) Britten (as D. filiformis Thunb.)[13]


Some shrubby species, such as D. fragrans, D. surculosa, D. marginata, and D. sanderiana, are popular as houseplants. Many of these are toxic to pets, though not humans, according to the ASPCA among others. Rooted stem cuttings of D. sanderiana are sold as "lucky bamboo", although only superficially resembling true bamboos.

Dracaena houseplants like humidity and moderate watering. They can tolerate periods of drought but the tips of the leaves may turn brown.[14] Leaves at the base will naturally yellow and drop off, leaving growth at the top and a bare stem.[14] Dracaena are vulnerable to mealybugs and scale insects.[14]

A naturally occurring bright red resin, dragon's blood, is collected from D. draco and, in ancient times, from D. cinnabari. Modern dragon's blood is however more likely to be from the unrelated Daemonorops rattan palms.[a] It also has social functions in marking graves, sacred sites and farm plots in many African societies[16]

Fruit as source of red resin exuded between scales, used medicinally and as a dye (one source of "dragon's blood"): Daemonorops didymophylla; Daemonorops draco; Daemonorops maculata; Daemonorops micrantha; Daemonorops propinqua; Daemonorops rubra[15]


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Sunset Western Garden Book. Sunset Publishing Corporation. 1995. ISBN 978-0-376-03851-7.
"Dracaena". 2013. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
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Chase, Reveal & Fay 2009, pp. 132–136.
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 2016, pp. 1–20.
James Wong (2021-05-09). "Fancy a plant that will grow old with you?". the Guardian. Retrieved 2021-08-10.
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"Dracaena ellenbeckiana". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
"Dracaena ellenbeckiana (Kedong Dracaena)". (in German). 2009. Retrieved 30 Jan 2016.
"Kedong Dracaena - Dracaena ellenbeckiana". Dave's Garden. 2005. Retrieved 30 Jan 2016.
Wilkin et al. 2013, pp. 101–112.
"Dracaena names". Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
Peerless, Veronica (2017). How Not to Kill Your Houseplant. DK Penguin Random House. pp. 68–69.
Sunderland & Dransfield 2002.

Sheridan 2008, pp. 491–521.


Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 181 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1111/boj.12385.
Chase, M.W.; Reveal, J.L. & Fay, M.F. (2009). "A subfamilial classification for the expanded asparagalean families Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceae and Xanthorrhoeaceae". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 132–136. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00999.x.
Coombes, Allen J. (2012). The A to Z of Plant Names: A Quick Reference Guide to 4000 Garden Plants. Timber Press. ISBN 978-1-60469-196-2.
Sunderland, Terry C.H.; Dransfield, John (2002). Florentino O.; Dransfield, John; Tesoro; N. Manokaran (eds.). "Species Profiles Rattans". Rattan, Current Research Issues and Prospects for Conservation and Sustainable Development. 14: 23–34.
Sheridan, M. (2008). "Tanzanian ritual perimetrics and African landscapes: the case of Dracaena". International Journal of African Historical Studies. 41 (3): 491–521. JSTOR 40282529.
Wilkin, Paul; Suksathan, Piyakaset; Keeratikiat, Kaweesak; van Welzen, Peter; Wiland-Szymanska, Justyna (2013). "A new species from Thailand and Burma, Dracaena kaweesakii Wilkin & Suksathan (Asparagaceae subfamily Nolinoideae)". PhytoKeys (26): 101–112. doi:10.3897/phytokeys.26.5335. PMC 3817424. PMID 24194672.

Further reading

Waterhouse, J. T. (1987). "The phylogenetic significance of Dracaena-type growth". Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. 109: 129–138.

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