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Euphorbia paralias

Euphorbia paralias (*)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Malpighiales

Familia: Euphorbiaceae
Subfamilia: Euphorbioideae
Tribus: Euphorbieae
Subtribus: Euphorbiinae
Genus: Euphorbia
Subgenus: E. subg. Esula
Sectio: E. sect. Paralias
Species: Euphorbia paralias

Euphorbia paralias L., Sp. Pl. 1: 459 (1753).

Tithymalus paralias (L.) Hill, Hort. Kew.: 172.3 (1768).
Galarhoeus paralias (L.) Haw., Syn. Pl. Succ.: 144 (1812).
Esula paralias (L.) Fourr., Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n.s., 17: 150 (1869).
Euphorbion paralium (L.) St.-Lag., Ann. Soc. Bot. Lyon 7: 126 (1880).
Tithymalus maritimus Lam., Fl. Franç. 3: 90 (1779).
Euphorbia malacitana Pau, Bol. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 39: 259 (1941).

Native distribution areas:

Continental: Europe
Regional: Northern Europe
Great Britain, Ireland.
Regional: Middle Europe
Belgium, Netherlands.
Regional: Southwestern Europe
Baleares, Corse, France, Portugal, Sardegna, Spain.
Regional: Southeastern Europe
Albania, Bulgaria, Greece,itzerland.html">Switzerland, Italy, Kriti, Sicilia (Sicily, Malta), Turkey-in-Europe, Yugoslavia.
Regional: Eastern Europe
Krym, Ukraine.
Continental: Africa
Regional: Northern Africa
Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, Western Sahara.
Regional: Macaronesia
Canary Islands (Gran Canaria, Gomera, Tenerife, Fuerteventura, Lanzarote), Madeira (Porto Santo).
Continental: Asia-Temperate
Regional: Caucasus
North Caucasus, Transcaucasus (Gruziya)
Regional: Western Asia
Cyprus, East Aegean Islands, Lebanon-Syria (Lebanon, Syria), Palestine (Israel), Turkey.
Continental: Australasia (introduced)
Regional: Australia
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia.
Continental: Northern America (introduced)
Regional: Northeastern U.S.A.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 459. Reference page.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Euphorbia paralias in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2020 Jul 06. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2020. Euphorbia paralias. Published online. Accessed: Jul 06 2020.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Euphorbia paralias in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2020 Jul 06. Reference page. 2020. Euphorbia paralias. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 06 Jul 2020.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Euphorbia paralias in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 08-Apr-12.

Vernacular names
العربية: فربيون متوازي
català: Lleteresa de platja
Cymraeg: Llaethlys y môr
Deutsch: Strand-Wolfsmilch
English: Sea Spurge
español: Lechetrezna marina
euskara: Dunetako esne-belar
suomi: Merityräkki
français: Euphorbe maritime
italiano: Euforbia marittima
Nederlands: Zeewolfsmelk
русский: Молочай прибрежный
sardu: Battiùriga
svenska: Fetbladstörel

Euphorbia paralias, the sea spurge, is a species of flowering plant in the family Euphorbiaceae, native to Europe, northern Africa and western Asia.[1]

The species is widely naturalised in Australia.[2] It invades coastal areas, displacing local species and colonising open sand areas favoured by certain nesting birds.[3] Major eradication programmes have been undertaken in some areas, for example by Sea Spurge Remote Area Teams in Tasmania, with great success.[4]

It is an erect, glaucous, perennial plant growing up to 70 cm tall. The plant has many stems, dividing into 3-5 fertile branches, each branching further. The cauline leaves (arising from the stem, without stalk) are crowded, overlapping, elliptic-ovate (ovate toward the top of the stems), fleshy and 5 to 20 mm long. Leaves on fertile branches are circular-rhombic or reniform. Flower head on a solitary cyathia, found in upper forks or at the apex, surrounded by bell-shaped bracts. Female flowers are with styles that divide into two short stigmas, flowering September–May. Fruit is a capsule flattened from above or nearly spherical, deep furrows, wrinkled on keels. Seeds ovoid, pale-grey and smooth. There is a kidney-shaped fleshy outgrowth from the seed coat.[5][2]
Euphorbia paralias - MHNT

"Euphorbia paralias". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2008-12-23.
James, T.A. & G.J. Harden. "Euphorbia paralias". PlantNET - New South Wales Flora Online. Royal Botanic Gardens & Domain Trust, Sydney Australia. Retrieved 2008-12-23.
"Have you seen this beach weed?". Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment (Tasmania). Archived from the original on 22 April 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
"EVALUATION REPORT DECEMBER 2015 - Wildcare SPRATS volunteer weed eradication project". Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
Boyce, Lauran; Buckeridge, John (2018). The terrestrial plants of the Rickett's Point Urban Sanctuary : Beaumaris Vic 3193. Beaumaris, Victoria: Greypath Productions. p. 73. ISBN 978-1760019716. Retrieved 7 November 2020.

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