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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Fabales

Familia: Fabaceae
Subfamilia: Faboideae
Tribus: Mirbelieae
Genus: Gastrolobium
Species: G. acrocaroli – G. aculeatum – G. acutum – G. alternifolium – G. appressum – G. argyrotrichum – G. axillare – G. bennettsianum – G. bilobum – G. bracteolosum – G. brevipes – G. brownii – G. callistachys – G. calycinum – G. capitatum – G. celsianum – G. congestum – G. coriaceum – G. crassifolium – G. crenulatum – G. crispatum – G. cruciatum – G. cuneatum – G. cyanophyllum – G. densifolium – G. diabolophyllum – G. dilatatum – G. discolor – G. dorrienii – G. ebracteolatum – G. effusum – G. elegans – G. epacridioides – G. euryphyllum – G. ferrugineum – G. floribundum – G. formosum – G. glabratum – G. glaucum – G. grandiflorum – G. graniticum – G. hamulosum – G. heterophyllum – G. hians – G. hookeri – G. humile – G. ilicifolium – G. involutum – G. latifolium – G. laytonii – G. leakeanum – G. lehmannii – G. linearifolium – G. luteifolium – G. melanocarpum – G. melanopetalum – G. microcarpum – G. minus – G. modestum – G. mondurup – G. musaceum – G. nervosum – G. nudum – G. nutans – G. obovatum – G. ovalifolium – G. oxylobioides – G. papilio – G. parviflorum – G. parvifolium – G. plicatum – G. polystachyum – G. praemorsum – G. propinquum – G. pulchellum – G. punctatum – G. pusillum – G. pycnostachyum – G. pyramidale – G. racemosum – G. reflexum – G. reticulatum – G. retusum – G. rhombifolium – G. rigidum – G. rotundifolium – G. rubrum – G. semiteres – G. sericeum – G. spathulatum – G. spectabile – G. spinosum – G. stenophyllum – G. stipulare – G. stowardii – G. subcordatum – G. tenue – G. tergiversum – G. tetragonophyllum – G. tomentosum – G. triangulare – G. tricuspidatum – G. trilobum – G. truncatum – G. velutinum – G. venulosum – G. vestitum – G. villosum – G. whicherense – G. wonganense
Source(s) of checklist:

Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Gastrolobium in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Mar 11. Reference page.


Gastrolobium R.Br., 1811

Brachysema R.Br.
Cryptosema Meisn.
Cupulanthus Hutch.
Jansonia Kippist
Nemcia Domin
Pontania Lem.

Native distribution areas:

Continental: Australasia
Regional: Australia
Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia
Introduced into:
India, South Australia

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
Primary references

Brown, R. in W.T.Aiton, 1811. Hortus Kewensis 3: 16

Additional references

Govaerts, R.H.A. 2003. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [unavailable for the public] Reference page.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Gastrolobium in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Mar 11. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2021. Gastrolobium. Published online. Accessed: Mar 11 2021. 2021. Gastrolobium. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Mar 11.
Hassler, M. 2021. Gastrolobium. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2021. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Mar 11. Reference page.

Vernacular names
русский: Гастролобиум
українська: Гастролобіум

Gastrolobium is a genus of flowering plants in the family Fabaceae. There are over 100 species in this genus, and all but two are native to the south west region of Western Australia.

A significant number of the species accumulate monofluoroacetate (the key ingredient of the poison known commonly as 1080), which caused introduced/non native animal deaths from the 1840s in Western Australia. The controversy over the cause of the stock poisoning in that time involved the botanist James Drummond in a series of tests to ascertain the cause of the poisoning, which was determined to be caused primarily by the plants York Road poison (G. calycinum) and Champion Bay poison (G. oxylobioides).[2][3]

In the 1930s and 1940s C.A. Gardner and H.W. Bennetts identified other species in Western Australia, leading to the publication of The Toxic Plants of Western Australia in 1956.[4]

The base chromosome number of Gastrolobium is 2n = 16.[5]


Gastrolobium comprises the following species:[1][6][7][8][9]
Gastrolobium bilobum Group

Gastrolobium acrocaroli G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium bilobum R.Br.—Heart-leaved poison
Gastrolobium brevipes Crisp
Gastrolobium callistachys Meisn.—Rock poison[Note 1]
Gastrolobium congestum G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium cuneatum Henfry—River poison
Gastrolobium grandiflorum F.Muell.—Wallflower poison
Gastrolobium graniticum (S.Moore) Crisp—Granite poison[Note 2]
Gastrolobium involutum G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium semiteres G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium stenophyllum Turcz.—Phillips River poison, Narrow-leaved poison
Gastrolobium tergiversum G. Chandler & Crisp

Gastrolobium parviflorum Subgroup

Gastrolobium discolor G. Chandler, Crisp & R.J. Bayer
Gastrolobium melanocarpum G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium musaceum G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium parviflorum (Benth.) Crisp—Box poison
Gastrolobium tetragonophyllum (E.Pritz.) Crisp—Brother-brother

Gastrolobium calycinum Group

Gastrolobium appressum C.A.Gardner—Scaleleaf poison
Gastrolobium calycinum Benth.—York Road poison
Gastrolobium hamulosum Meisn.—Hook Point poison[Note 3]
Gastrolobium oxylobioides Benth.—Champion Bay poison
Gastrolobium racemosum (Turcz.) Crisp—Net-leaved poison
Gastrolobium reflexum G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium rigidum (C.A.Gardner) Crisp—Rigid leaf poison[Note 4]
Gastrolobium spectabile (Endl.) Crisp—Roe's poison
Gastrolobium tenue G. Chandler & Crisp

Gastrolobium celsianum Group

Gastrolobium bracteolosum (F. Muell.) G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium celsianum (Lem.) G. Chandler & Crisp—Swan River pea
Gastrolobium formosum (Kippist ex Lindl.) G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium leakeanum Drumm.—Mountain pea
Gastrolobium luteifolium (Domin) G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium melanopetalum (F. Muell.) G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium minus (Crisp) G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium modestum (Crisp) G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium mondurup G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium papilio (Crisp) G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium praemorsum (Meisn.) G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium rubrum (Crisp) G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium sericeum (Sm.) G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium subcordatum (Benth.) G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium vestitum (Domin) G. Chandler & Crisp

Gastrolobium cruciatum Group

Gastrolobium cruciatum G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium epacridoides Meisn.
Gastrolobium punctatum (Turcz.) G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium reticulatum (Meisn.) Benth.

Gastrolobium floribundum Group

Gastrolobium crassifolium Benth.—Thick-leaved poison
Gastrolobium diabolophyllum G. Chandler, Crisp & R.J. Bayer
Gastrolobium floribundum S.Moore—Wodjil poison
Gastrolobium glaucum C.A.Gardner—Spike poison[Note 5]
Gastrolobium hians G.Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium laytonii Jean White—Breelya, Kite-leaved poison
Gastrolobium microcarpum (Meisn.) Benth.—Sandplain poison
Gastrolobium parvifolium Benth.—Berry poison
Gastrolobium polystachyum Meisn.—Horned poison, Hill River poison
Gastrolobium propinquum C.A.Gardner—Hutt River poison
Gastrolobium pycnostachyum Benth.—Mount ragged poison, Round-leaved poison[Note 6]
Gastrolobium velutinum Lindl. & Paxton—White gum poison, Stirling Range poison

Gastrolobium heterophyllum Group

Gastrolobium heterophyllum (Turcz.) Crisp—Slender poison
Gastrolobium nutans G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium pusillum Crisp & P.H. Weston

Gastrolobium ilicifolium Group

Gastrolobium ilicifolium Meisn.
Gastrolobium rhombifolium G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium tricuspidatum Meisn.

Gastrolobium obovatum Group

Gastrolobium bennettsianum C.A.Gardner—Cluster poison
Gastrolobium brownii Meisn.
Gastrolobium hookeri Meisn.
Gastrolobium latifolium (R. Br.) G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium obovatum Benth.
Gastrolobium plicatum Turcz.
Gastrolobium pulchellum Turcz.
Gastrolobium spathulatum Benth.
Gastrolobium stowardii S. Moore
Gastrolobium truncatum Benth.

Gastrolobium pyramidale Group

Gastrolobium coriaceum (Sm.) G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium crenulatum Turcz.
Gastrolobium pyramidale T.Moore

Gastrolobium retusum Group

Gastrolobium acutum Benth.
Gastrolobium alternifolium G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium capitatum (Benth.) G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium crispatum G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium dorrienii (Domin) G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium ebracteolatum G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium effusum (M.D. Crisp & F.H. Mollemans) G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium linearifolium G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium nervosum (Meisn.) G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium retusum Lindl.
Gastrolobium stipulare Meisn.
Gastrolobium whicherensis G. Chandler & Crisp

Gastrolobium spinosum Group

Gastrolobium aculeatum G. Chandler, Crisp & R.J. Bayer
Gastrolobium euryphyllum G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium spinosum Benth.—Prickly poison
var. grandiflorum C.Gardner
var. spinosum Benth.
var. triangulare Benth.
var. trilobum S. Moore
Gastrolobium triangulare (Benth.) Domin
Gastrolobium trilobum Benth.—Bullock poison
Gastrolobium wonganensis G. Chandler & Crisp

Gastrolobium villosum Group

Gastrolobium densifolium C.A.Gardner—Mallet poison
Gastrolobium glabratum G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium ovalifolium Henfr.—Runner poison
Gastrolobium rotundifolium Meisn.—Gilbernine poison
Gastrolobium tomentosum C.A.Gardner—Wooly poison[Note 7]
Gastrolobium villosum Benth.—Crinkle-leaved poison

Incertae Sedis

Gastrolobium axillare Meisn.
Gastrolobium cyanophyllum G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium dilatatum (Benth.) G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium elegans G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium ferrugineum G. Chandler, Crisp & R.J. Bayer
Gastrolobium humile G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium lehmannii Meisn.
Gastrolobium nudum G. Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium venulosum G. Chandler & Crisp

Species names with uncertain taxonomic status

The status of the following species is unresolved:[1][8][9]

Gastrolobium boormani Maiden & Betche
Gastrolobium compactum C.A. Gardner
Gastrolobium elachistum F.Muell.
Gastrolobium henfreyi Lem.
Gastrolobium huegelii Henfr.
Gastrolobium makoyanum Heynh.
Gastrolobium revolutum Crisp
Gastrolobium scorsifolium F.Muell.
Gastrolobium splendens Heynh.
Gastrolobium velutinum Lindl. ex J. Paxton
Gastrolobium verticillatum Heynh.
Gastrolobium whicherense G.Chandler & Crisp
Gastrolobium wonganense G.Chandler & Crisp

See also

Western Shield Conservation Practices


Gastrolobium callistachys was previously a Declared Rare Flora in Western Australia, but is not currently. See FloraBase.
Gastrolobium graniticum is a Declared Rare Flora in Western Australia. See FloraBase.
Gastrolobium hamulosum is a Declared Rare Flora in Western Australia. See FloraBase.
Gastrolobium rigidum was previously a Declared Rare Flora in Western Australia, but is not currently. See FloraBase.
Gastrolobium glaucum is a Declared Rare Flora in Western Australia. See FloraBase.
Gastrolobium pycnostachyum is a Priority 2 species. See FloraBase.

Gastrolobium tomentosum was previously a Declared Rare Flora in Western Australia, but is not currently. See FloraBase.


Chandler GT, Crisp MD, Cayzer LW, Bayer RJ (2002). "Monograph of Gastrolobium (Fabaceae: Mirbelieae)" (PDF). Australian Systematic Botany. 15 (5): 619–739. doi:10.1071/SB01010.
Aplin TEH (1967), York road poison and box poison, Western Australian Department of Agriculture, retrieved 1 November 2016
"Champion Bay Poison". Western Mail. XLIII (2, 231). Western Australia. 15 November 1928. p. 42. Retrieved 1 November 2016 – via National Library of Australia.
Gardner CA, Bennetts HW, Gardner C, Bennetts H (1956), The toxic plants of Western Australia, West Australian Newspapers, Periodicals Division, retrieved 1 November 2016
Sands VE (1975). "The cytoevolution of the Australian Papilionaceae". Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. 100: 118–155.
Chandler GT, Bayer RJ, Crisp MD (2001). "A molecular phylogeny of the endemic Australian genus Gastrolobium (Fabaceae: Mirbelieae) and allied genera using chloroplast and nuclear markers". Am J Bot. 88 (9): 1675–1687. doi:10.2307/3558413. JSTOR 3558413. PMID 21669702.
"ILDIS LegumeWeb entry for Gastrolobium". International Legume Database & Information Service. Cardiff School of Computer Science & Informatics. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
USDA; ARS; National Genetic Resources Program. "GRIN species records of Gastrolobium". Germplasm Resources Information Network—(GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 18 January 2017.

"The Plant List entry for Gastrolobium". The Plant List. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and the Missouri Botanical Garden. 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2017.

Further reading
Paczkowska G, Chapman AR (2000). The Western Australian Flora—A Descriptive Catalogue. Perth, W.A.: Wildflower Society of Western Australia: Western Australian Herbarium: Western Australian Botanic Gardens & Parks Authority. ISBN 0-646-40100-9.
"Gastrobium R.Br.". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government.
Seawright AA (1989). "Flouracetates". Animal Health in Australia. Volume 2. Chemical and Plant Poisons. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service. pp. 43–45. ISBN 0-644-08179-1.

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