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Gladiolus italicus

Gladiolus italicus (*)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales

Familia: Iridaceae
Subfamilia: Crocoideae
Tribus: Gladioleae
Genus: Gladiolus
Subgenus: G. subg. Gladiolus
Sectio: G. sect. Gladiolus
Species: Gladiolus italicus

Gladiolus italicus Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8: 2 (1768).

Ballosporum segetum (Ker Gawl.) Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 142 (1866).
Gladiolus bornetii Ardoino, Fl. Anal. Alpes-Mar.: 363 (1867).
Gladiolus communis subsp. inarimensis (Guss.) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 704 (1882).
Gladiolus commutatus Bouché, Linnaea 12: 484 (1838).
Gladiolus dalmaticus Tausch ex Rchb., Fl. Germ. Excurs., Add.: ix (1832).
Gladiolus dubius Parl., Fl. Panorm. 1: 44 (1839), nom. illeg. non Guss. (1832).
Gladiolus gawleri Jord. in C.T.A.Jordan & J.P.Fourreau, Icon. Fl. Eur. 2: 36 (1903)), nom. illeg.
Gladiolus guepinii K.Koch, Flora 23: 466 (1840).
Gladiolus inarimensis Guss., Enum. Pl. Inarim.: 326 (1855).
Gladiolus infestus Bianca, Atti Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 19: 93 (1842).
Gladiolus leucanthus Bouché, Linnaea 12: 483 (1838).
Gladiolus ludovicae Jan ex Bertol., Novi Comment. Acad. Sci. Inst. Bononiensis 1: 74 (1834).
Gladiolus pallidus Bouché, Linnaea 12: 482 (1838).
Gladiolus paui Sennen, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n.s., 72: 13 (1925) publ. 1926
Gladiolus proteiflorus G.B.Romano ex Lutati, Stud. Veg. Piemonte: 200 (1929).
Gladiolus segetalis St.-Lag., Ann. Soc. Bot. Lyon 7: 126 (1880).
Gladiolus segetum Ker Gawl., Bot. Mag. 19: t. 719 (1804).
Gladiolus segetum subsp. guepinii (K.Koch) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 703 (1882).
Gladiolus segetum var. infestus (Bianca) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 703 (1882).
Gladiolus segetum var. ludovicae (Jan ex Bertol.) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 703 (1882).
Gladiolus segetum subsp. commutatus (Bouché) K.Richt., Pl. Eur. 1: 260 (1890).
Gladiolus segetum subsp. inarimensis (Guss.) K.Richt., Pl. Eur. 1: 260 (1890).
Gladiolus segetum subsp. ludovicae (Jan ex Bertol.) K.Richt., Pl. Eur. 1: 260 (1890).
Gladiolus spathaceus Parl., Fl. Ital. 3: 262 (1860)), nom. illeg.
Gladiolus tenuiflorus K.Koch, Linnaea 21: 636 (1848).
Gladiolus turkmenorum Czerniak. in V.L.Komarov (ed.), Fl. URSS 4: 750 (1935).
Sphaerospora segetum (Ker Gawl.) Sweet, Hort. Brit.: 398 (1826)), nom. inval.

Native distribution areas:

Continental: Europe
Regional: Southeastern Europe
Albania, Bulgaria, Cyprus, East Aegean Is., Greece, Italy, Kriti, Krym, Romania, Sicilia, Yugoslavia
Regional: Southwestern Europe
Baleares, Corse, France, Portugal, Sardegna, Spain
Continental: Africa
Regional: Northern Africa
Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia
Regional: Macaronesia
Azores, Canary Is.
Continental: Asia-Temperate
Regional: Western Asia
Iran, Lebanon-Syria, North Caucasus, Palestine, Sinai, Tadzhikistan, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan,
Regional: Arabian Peninsula
Oman, Saudi Arabia Yemen
Extinct in:
Introduced into:
California, Madeira

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
Primary references

Miller, P. 1768. The Gardeners Dictionary: containing the best and newest methods of cultivating and improving the kitchen, fruit, flower garden, and nursery. Ed. 8, 3 volumes (without pagination), John & Francis Rivington, London. DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.541 Reference page.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2022. Gladiolus italicus in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2022 Jan 27. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2022. Gladiolus italicus. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2022. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2022 Jan 27. Reference page. 2022. Gladiolus italicus. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 27 Jan 2022.
International Plant Names Index. 2022. Gladiolus italicus. Published online. Accessed: Jan 27 2022.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Gladiolus italicus in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 07-Oct-06.

Vernacular names
العربية: دلبوث إيطالي
català: Lliri dels prats
Ελληνικά, Κυπριακά: Αγριόφρενσες, Μαχαιράς, Πάσχα, Πετεινός, Αγριοπετεινός
English: Italian gladiolus
suomi: Italianmiekkalilja
français: Glaïeul des moissons
עברית: סייפן התבואה
italiano: gladiolo dei campi
svenska: Tidig sabellilja

Gladiolus italicus is a species of gladiolus known by the common names Italian gladiolus, field gladiolus, and common sword-lily.

It is native to much of Eurasia and North Africa,[1] but it is well known on other continents where it is a common weed, particularly of cultivated fields and waste places.[2] This perennial flower grows an erect stem approaching a meter in maximum height with a few long leaves around its base. Toward the top half of the generally unbranching stem is a spike inflorescence on which flowers appear at intervals. Each plant has up to 15 or 16 flowers. The flower is bright pink to magenta and several centimeters long with its stamens and style protruding from the throat. The fruit is a capsule about a centimeter long containing many seeds.[3][4][5][6][7][8]

Gladiolus italicus fruits and seeds MHNT


"World Checklist of Selected Plant Families: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew".
"Gladiolus italicus in Flora of North America @".
Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Boulos, L. (1995). Flora of Egypt: i-xii, 1-287. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina Area: 404-410. Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities.
Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
Mikheev, A. (2006). Synopsis generis Gladiolus L. (Iridaceae) specierum in flora caucasi. Novosti Sistematiki Vysshikh Rastenii 38: 120-125.
Zervous, S., Raus, T. & Yannitsaros, A. (2009). Additions to the flora of the island of Kalimnos (SE Aegean, Greece). Willdenowia 39: 165-177.

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