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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Cladus: Commelinids
Ordo: Commelinaless

Familia: Haemodoraceae
Subfamilia: Conostyloideae – Haemodoroideae
Genera: AnigozanthosBarberettaBlancoaConostylis – Cubanicula – Dilatris – Haemodorum – Lachnanthes – Macropidia – Phlebocarya – Pyrrorhiza – Schiekia – Tribonanthes – Wachendorfia – Xiphidium


Haemodoraceae R.Br., Prodr. 299 (1810) nom. cons.

Type genus: Haemodorum Sm., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 4: 213 (1798)


Conostylidaceae Takht., Sist. Magnoliof. [Syst. Magnolioph.]: 313 (1987)
Dilatridaceae M.Roem., Handb. Allg. Bot. 3: 476 (1840)
Wachendorfiaceae Herb., Amaryllidaceae: 48 (1837)
Xiphidiaceae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 59, 61 (1829)

Primary references

Brown, R. 1810. Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van Diemen. pp. i–viii + 145–590, Londini: R.Taylor. BHL Reference page. : 299

Additional references

Hopper, S.D., Smith, R.J., Fay, M.F., Manning, J.C. & Chase, M.W. 2009. Molecular phylogenetics of Haemodoraceae in the Greater Cape and Southwest Australian floristic regions. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 51(1): 19-30. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2008.11.015 Paywall Reference page.
Simpson, M.G., Aerne, L., Fay, M.F., & Hopper, S. 2006. Phylogenetic analysis of the Haemodoraceae using morphological and molecular data and implications for classification and character evolution. P. 257, in Botany 2006 - Looking to the Future - Conserving the Past.
Pellegrini, M.O., Hickman, E.J., Guttiérrez, J.E., Smith, R.J. & Hopper, S.D. 2020. Revisiting the taxonomy of the Neotropical Haemodoraceae (Commelinales). PhytoKeys, 169: 1-59. DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.169.57996 Open access Reference page.
Zuntini, A.R., Frankel, L.P., Pokorny, L., Forest, F. & Baker, W.J. 2021. A comprehensive phylogenomic study of the monocot order Commelinales, with a new classification of Commelinaceae. American Journal of Botany 108(7): 1066–1086. DOI: 10.1002/ajb2.1698 Open access Reference page.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Haemodoraceae in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Oct 01. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2021. Haemodoraceae. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2021. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Oct 01. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. Oct. Haemodoraceae. Published online. Accessed: 01 Oct.
Stevens, P.F. 2001 onwards. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14, July 2017 [and more or less continuously updated since]. Online. Reference page. 2021. Haemodoraceae. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Oct 01.

Vernacular names
English: Bloodwort and Kangaroo Paw family
suomi: Kenguruntassukasvit
latviešu: asinssakneņu dzimta
русский: Гемодоровые
中文: 血草科

Haemodoraceae is a family of perennial herbaceous flowering plants with 14 genera and 102 known species.[4] It is sometimes known as the "bloodwort family". Primarily a Southern Hemisphere family, they are found in South Africa, Australia and New Guinea, and in the Americas (from SE U.S.A. to tropical South America). Perhaps the best known are the widely cultivated and unusual kangaroo paws from Australia, of the two closely related genera Anigozanthos and Macropidia.


The Haemodoraceae were first described by Robert Brown in 1810,[1] and bear his name as the botanical authority. An alternative name has been Haemodoreae[3]

The fourth Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification of 2016 (unchanged from the earlier APG systems of 2009, 2003 and 1998), also recognizes this family and places it in the order Commelinales, in the clade commelinids, in the monocots.[5][2] The family of the Haemodoraceae then includes about sixteen sub-tropical or tropical genera found in the southern hemisphere, two in North America and three known cultivated genera in Europe.[6]

Haemodoraceae is characterized by distichous leathery leaves, which are alternate, succulent, rather large and often ensiform, with entire margins and parallel veins.[7] The leaves are enclosed by a sheath with free margins and alternate, distichous (= in two vertical ranks).

The plants are hermaphroditic. Pollinators are primarily insects, but also birds or sometimes a small mammal. The wooly-haired flowers grow at the end of a leaflet stalk, in cymes (with lateral branches), panicles or racemes.

Anigozanthos – Kangaroo paws
Haemodorum – Bloodroots
Macropidia – Black kangaroo paws

The term "bloodwort" can also apply to Sanguinaria canadensis (more often called bloodroot) or Achillea millefolium (more often called yarrow or common yarrow), in other families.

Brown 1810, p. 299.
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 181 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1111/boj.12385. ISSN 0024-4074.
Agardh 1825.
Christenhusz, M. J. M.; Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x.
Walters, Stuart Max (1986). The European Garden Flora: Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae, Angiospermae. Cambridge University Press. p. 290. ISBN 978-0-521-24859-4.

Darlington, William (1853). Flora cestrica: an herborizing companion for the young botanists of Chester County...Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: Lindsay & Blakiston. p. 317. OCLC 4039950.


Agardh, Carl Adolph (1825). "XI. Liliiflorae". Classes Plantarum (in Latin). Lund: Literis Berlingianis. p. 8.
Brown, Robert (1810). Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van Diemen (in Latin). London: Richard Taylor & Son.
The families of flowering plants Descriptions, illustrations, identification, information retrieval.
Monocot families (USDA)
Haemodoraceae at CSDL
overview of taxa in Western Australia (144 entries)

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