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Iris domestica

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales

Familia: Iridaceae
Subfamilia: Iridoideae
Tribus: Irideae
Genus: Iris
Subgenus: I. subg. Pardanthopsis
Species: Iris domestica

Iris domestica Goldblatt & Mabb., Novon 15(1): 129 (2005).

Type-protologue: Java: Without data. Kaempfer, Amoen. Exot. Fasc. 5: t. 869(1) (1712). LT: vide Garay, Harvard Pap. Bot. 2: 49 (1997). ET: Cult in Europe, Davall s.n. (epitype: LINN-SM 45). Epitypified by Goldblatt & Mabberley, Novon 15: 129 (2005)..


Epidendrum domesticum L., Sp. Pl.: 952 (1753).

Vanilla domestica (L.) Druce, Rep. Bot. Exch. Club Soc. Brit. Isles 3: 425 (1913 publ. 1914).
Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC., Liliac. (P.J.Redouté) 3: t. 121 (1805).
Belamcanda chinensis f. flava Makino, J. Jap. Bot. 1: 28 (1917).
Belamcanda chinensis f. vulgaris Makino, J. Jap. Bot. 1: 28 (1917).
Belamcanda chinensis var. curtata Makino, J. Jap. Bot. 1: 28 (1917).
Belamcanda chinensis var. taiwanensis S.S.Ying, Coloured Illustr. Herbac. Pl. Taiwan 1: 237 (1980).
Belamcanda flabellata Grey, Gard. Chron., III, 96: 408 (1934).
Belamcanda pampaninii H.Lév., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 8: 59 (1910).
Belamcanda punctata Moench, Methodus: 529 (1794), nom. superfl.
Bermudiana guttata Stokes, Bot. Mat. Med. 1: 109 (1812).
Ferraria crocea Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton: 41 (1796).
Gemmingia chinensis (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 701 (1891).
Gemmingia chinensis f. aureoflora Makino, Ill. Fl. Japan: 713 (1940).
Gemmingia chinensis f. rubriflora Makino, Ill. Fl. Japan: 713 (1940).
Ixia chinensis L., Sp. Pl.: 36 (1753)), nom. cons.
Ixia ensifolia Noronha, Verh. Batav. Genootsch. Kunsten 5: 18 (1790).
Moraea chinensis (L.) Thunb., Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsal. 4: 39 (1783).
Moraea guttata (Stokes) Stokes, Bot. Comm. 1: 229 (1830).
Pardanthus chinensis (L.) Ker Gawl., Ann. Bot. (König & Sims) 1: 247 (1804).
Pardanthus nepalensis Sweet, Hort. Brit.: 395 (1826).
Pardanthus sinensis Van Houtte, Fl. Serres Jard. Eur. 16: t. 1632 (1865).

Native distribution areas:

Continental: Asia-Temperate
Regional: China
China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Hainan, Inner Mongolia, Nepal
Regional: Eastern Asia
Japan, Korea, Manchuria, Primorye
Continental: Asia-Tropical
Regional: Indian Subcontinent
Bangladesh, East Himalaya, India, Tibet, West Himalaya
Regional: Malesia
Cambodia, Malaya, Myanmar, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam
Introduced into:
Alabama, Andaman Is., Arkansas, Connecticut, Cook Is., Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Caledonia, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Virginia, West Virginia, Windward Is., Wisconsin

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
Primary references

Goldblatt, P. & Mabberley, D.J. 2005. Novon; a Journal for Botanical Nomenclature. St. Louis, MO 15:129.

Additional references

Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. 2012. Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: I–XXV, 1–1192. BHL Reference page.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2022. Iris domestica in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2022 Feb 10. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2022. Iris domestica. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2022. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2022 Feb 10. Reference page. 2022. Iris domestica. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 10 Feb 2022.
International Plant Names Index. 2022. Iris domestica. Published online. Accessed: Feb 10 2022.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Iris domestica in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 2022 Feb 10.

Vernacular names
English: Leopard flower
suomi: Leopardikurjenmiekka, leopardinkukka
svenska: Leopardblomma

Iris domestica, commonly known as leopard lily,[2] blackberry lily, and leopard flower, is an ornamental plant in the family Iridaceae.[3] In 2005, based on molecular DNA sequence evidence, Belamcanda chinensis, the sole species in the genus Belamcanda, was transferred to the genus Iris and renamed Iris domestica.[4]


A perennial herb, I. domestica may grow to a height of 0.6–1 metre (2 ft 0 in – 3 ft 3 in), with its rhizomes in shallow ground, extending horizontally.[3] It has 3-5-stems and 8-14 leaves per stem growing in a fan, with flowers ascending proximally having orange-red scattered spots of darker pigment, blooming during summer.[3] The seed pods open in the fall, showing clusters of black, shiny seeds whose resemblance to those of a blackberry gives the plant its common name, "blackberry lily".[3] The plant is hardy to USDA plant hardiness zone 5 and is propagated by seeds or division.

In the wild, it grows in grasslands, pastures, forest clearings, meadows, and mountainous regions or shrublands.[3] Although it has escaped cultivation in many regions, it is not considered to have potential as an invasive species.[3]

Its synonyms are Epidendrum domesticum L., Vanilla domestica (L.) Druce, Belamcanda punctata Moench, Gemmingia chinensis (L.) Kuntze, Ixia chinensis L., Morea chinensis, and Pardanthus chinensis Ker Gawl.)


The plant is native to Eastern Asia and has been cultivated worldwide in subtropical and temperate climates.[3][5] Due to the ornamental value of its attractive flowers, the plant was distributed to Europe as early as the 18th century and the United States and Caribbean countries in the 19th century.[3]

I. domestica is a common ornamental plant in private and public gardens, zoos, and floral displays.[3] Its flowers provide nectar and pollen to insects and birds.[3] The plant has been used in traditional medicine.[3]
See also

Dieffenbachia (leopard lily)
List of plants known as lily


"Iris domestica (L.) Goldblatt & Mabb. is an accepted name". (The Plant List). 23 March 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
English Names for Korean Native Plants (PDF). Pocheon: Korea National Arboretum. 2015. p. 371. ISBN 978-89-97450-98-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017 – via Korea Forest Service.
"Iris domestica (blackberry lily)". CABI. 22 November 2019. Retrieved 17 December 2021.
Goldblatt P, Mabberley DJ (2005) Belamcanda Included in Iris, and the New Combination I. domestica (Iridaceae: Irideae). Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature: Vol. 15, No. 1 pp. 128–132

"Iris domestica". Plants of the World Online, Kew Royal Botanic Gardens. 2017. Retrieved 17 December 2021.

Pink, A. (2004). Gardening for the Million. Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation.

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