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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales

Familia: Iridaceae
Subfamilia: Iridoideae
Tribus: Irideae
Genus: Iris
Subgenus: I. subg. Iris
Section: I. sect. Hexapogon
Species: Iris longiscapa

Iris longiscapa Ledeb., Fl. Ross. 4: 93 (1852).

Replaced synonym
Iris filifolia Bunge, Beitr. Fl. Russl.: 330 (1852), nom. illeg.
Iris falcifolia Bunge, Beitr. Fl. Russl.: 329 (1852).

Native distribution areas:

Govaerts, R. et al. 2022. Iris longiscapa in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2022 Jan 1. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2022. Iris longiscapa in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2022 Jan 1. Reference page. 2022. Iris longiscapa. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 1 Jan 2022.
International Plant Names Index. 2022. Iris longiscapa. Published online. Accessed: 1 Jan 2022.
Hassler, M. 2022. World Plants. Synonymic Checklist and Distribution of the World Flora. . Iris longiscapa. Accessed: 1 Jan 2022.
Hassler, M. 2022. Iris longiscapa. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2022. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2022 Jan 1. Reference page.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Iris longiscapa in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service.

Iris longiscapa is a plant species in the genus Iris, it is also in the subgenus Iris and in the section Hexapogon. It is a rhizomatous perennial from the deserts of Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. They have grass-like leaves and lilac-violet or blue-purple flowers on a tall slender stem.

It is cultivated as an ornamental plant in temperate regions.

1 Description
1.1 Biochemistry
2 Taxonomy
3 Distribution and habitat
3.1 Range
3.2 Habitat
4 Uses
4.1 Cultivation
5 References
5.1 Other sources
6 External links


Iris longiscapa is very similar in form to Iris songarica.[2]

The plant has a short, small rhizome.[3][4] It produces small, nut-like segments, (which are smaller than Iris falcifolia), one per year, that spread to create small creeping, dense tufts of plants.[2][5] On top of the rhizome are the fibrous remains of the previous seasons leaves.[2][5] Underneath, it has plenty of thick roots.[2][5]

It has basal, green, grass-like or filiform (thread-like) linear leaves.[4][6][7] They are narrow, deciduous and between 0.02–25 cm (0–10 in) wide.[6][7][8] The leaves are much narrower and straighter than Iris falcifolia.[7][8]

The stem (or peduncle) is slender and can grow between 50–75 cm (20–30 in) long.[3][9][10] It is more longer and slender than Iris falcifolia,[5] but shorter than Iris songarica.[2]

The stems have 3 spathes (leaves of the flower bud), which are narrow and are acuminated (ending in a sharp point), and they have a hyaline (clear and translucent) or membranous margin.[2][5] The spathes have a small peduncle (stalk) that are between 1.2–2.5 cm (0–1 in) long.[6]

The stems hold short pedicels (flower stalks), which are 5–7.5 cm (2–3 in) long,[6] they hold 2–5 flowers,[2][6][10] between April and May.[2][4][5]

The flowers are 4–5 cm (2–2 in) in diameter,[2][6][8] they are slightly smaller than Iris falcifolia,[5] but smaller than Iris songarica.[2] They come in shades of lilac-violet,[5][6][9] or blue-purple,[4][10][11] It has 2 pairs of petals, 3 large sepals (outer petals), known as the 'falls' and 3 inner, smaller petals (or tepals), known as the 'standards'.[12] The falls are oblong shaped,[2][5] and have darker veins along the margins.[2][5][6] In the centre of the falls, is a large, white, clavate (shaped like a club) beard.[3][6] It has a fine yellow centre.[3][9][11] The standards are erect, narrowly spatulate and can sometimes have hairs.[5]

The flowers are bisexual and actinomorphic (meaning have radial symmetry).[2]

After the iris has flowered, it produces a pointed, 3-angled,[5] or 3-edged seed capsule[2] that is 4–6 cm (2–2 in) long.[2][5]

Since most irises are diploid, having two sets of chromosomes, this can be used to identify hybrids and classification of groupings.[12] It has a chromosome count: 2n=18,[4][9][11] carried out by Zakharyeva in 1985.[6]

It is known locally as 'teke-sakal (in Turkmenistan) and kacathk (in Uzbekistan).[2]

The Latin specific epithet longiscapa refers to long, slender stem,[4][11] or long scape.[13]

It was first published and described by Carl Friedrich von Ledebour in 'Flora Rossica sive Enumeratio Plantarum in Totius Imperii Rossici Provinciis Europaeis, Asiaticis, et Americanis Hucusque Observatarum. Stuttgartiae' (Fl. Ross.) Vol.4 Issue 12, page 93 in April 1852.[6][14][15]

It was also published in 'Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg Divers Savans' Vol.7 page 505 in 1854.[5] The synonym Iris filifolia Boiss. was published in 'Voy. Espagne' (1839–45) page602 in 1839.[5]

It has never been illustrated except for a small drawing of one flower published in Komarov's 'Flora USSR' in Vol.4, table 34 in 1935.[6]

On 2 October 2014, it was verified by the United States Department of Agriculture and the Agricultural Research Service.[15]
Distribution and habitat

Iris longiscapa is a native to temperate regions of Central Asia.[2][5][9][15]

It is found in (the former states of USSR),[4][7][11] of Kazakhstan,[15][16] Afghanistan,[10] Tajikistan,[15] Turkmenistan,[2][15][17] and Uzbekistan.[3][15][18] It is also found in Iran,[4][11] or the Turanian deserts.[19]

They are specifically found in the deserts of Kara Kum and Kyzyl Kum.[6][7][8]

It is a psammophyte and grows in the sandy-clay deserts,[4][10] or on granite hills.[5] The soils contain NoH.[19]

It is also found in the Turanian gypsophilic (gypsum-loving) sagebrush lands of Kazakhstan, growing with Gagea reticulata, Nonea caspica and Tulipa sogdiana.[16]

A harvest of dry leaves of the iris are used as a litter for cattle in barns in Uzbekistan.[2]

It is eaten in spring by sheep in .[20]

Iris longiscapa is cultivated as an ornamental plant, though it is rare.[4][11]

It is not hardy in Europe, and should be grown in a pot or a cold greenhouse.[4] It is grown in loamy soils, in full sun with good drainage.[11] It needs to rest and be dry over summer, after it flowers.[11] It needs to be grown in full sun.[4]

A specimen was sent to Saint Petersburg Botanical Garden.[5]

"Iris longiscapa Ledeb. is an accepted name". (The Plant List). 23 March 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
Gustave Gintzburger Rangelands of the Arid and Semi-arid Zones in Uzbekistan, p. 395, at Google Books
"Iris longiscapa". Retrieved 27 April 2015.
"Chapter II iris clump and other (part3)". Retrieved 25 April 2015.
Komarov, V.L. (1935). "Akademiya Nauk SSSR (FLORA of the U.S.S.R.) Vol. IV". Retrieved 9 October 2014.
Franco, Alain (6 December 2013). "(SPEC) Iris longiscapa Ledeb". (American Iris Society). Retrieved 25 April 2015.
"Iris longiscapa". Retrieved 10 April 2015.
British Iris Society (1997) A Guide to Species Irises: Their Identification and Cultivation at Google Books
"Iris summary" (PDF). 14 April 2014. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
Cassidy, George E.; Linnegar, Sidney (1987). Growing Irises (Revised ed.). Bromley: Christopher Helm. p. 125. ISBN 0-88192-089-4.
"Iris longiscapa". Archived from the original on 10 April 2015. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
Austin, Claire (2005). Irises; A Garden Encyclopedia. Timber Press. ISBN 0881927309.
Smith, A.W.; Stearn, William T. (1972). A Gardener's Dictionary of Plant Names (Revised ed.). Cassell and Company (published 1963). p. 202. ISBN 0304937215.
"Iridaceae Iris longiscapa Ledeb". (International Plant Names Index). Retrieved 10 April 2015.
"Iris longiscapa". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 10 April 2015.
Rhind, Peter Martin (2010). "Plant Formations in the Turanian BioProvince" (PDF). Retrieved 27 April 2015.
AP Mabuza Travel to Turkestan founding member of the Society AP Mabuza, p. 147, at Google Books
Siegmar-W. Breckle, Walter Wucherer, Liliya A. Dimeyeva and Nathalia P. Ogar (Editors)Aralkum – a Man-Made Desert: The Desiccated Floor of the Aral Sea (Central Asia), p. 292, at Google Books

J. R. Goodin and David K. Northington (Editors) Plant Resources of Arid and Semiarid Lands: A Global Perspective at Google Books

Other sources

Czerepanov, S. K. 1995. Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (the former USSR).
Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. 1934–1964. Flora SSSR.
Mathew, B. 1981. The Iris. 66.

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