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Juncus inflexus

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Cladus: Commelinids
Ordo: Poales

Familia: Juncaceae
Genus: Juncus
Species: Juncus inflexus
Subspecies: J. i. subsp. brachytepalus – J. i. subsp. inflexus

Juncus inflexus L., 1753
Native distribution areas:

Continental: Eurasia & Africa
Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Assam, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, France, Free State, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Madagascar, Madeira, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, Northwest European R, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaïre
Introduced into:
Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Finland, Jawa, Michigan, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Ontario, Pennsylvania, Québec, Sri Lanka, Uruguay, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 326. Reference page.

Additional references

Kirschner, J. & al. (2002). Juncaceae Species Plantarum: Flora of the World 6-8: 1-237, 1-336,1-192. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2022. Juncus inflexus in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2022 Mar 06. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2022. Juncus inflexus. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2022. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2022 Mar 06. Reference page. 2022. Juncus inflexus. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 06 Mar 2022.
International Plant Names Index. 2022. Juncus inflexus. Published online. Accessed: Mar 06 2022.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Juncus inflexus in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service.

Vernacular names
suomi: Sinivihvilä
Nederlands: Zeegroene Rus

uncus inflexus, the hard rush, is a species of flowering plant in the genus Juncus, native to Europe, Asia and Africa, and introduced in Sri Lanka, Java, Île Amsterdam and Île Saint-Paul, Victoria in Australia, New Zealand, Uruguay, and eastern North America.[2][3] It is a glycophyte.[4]

The following subspecies are currently accepted:[2]

Juncus inflexus subsp. brachytepalus (Trautv. ex V.I.Krecz. & Gontsch.) Novikov
Juncus inflexus subsp. inflexus


Sp. Pl.: 326 (1753)
"Juncus inflexus L." Plants of the World Online. Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2017. Retrieved 19 January 2021.
"Juncus inflexus hard rush". The Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 19 January 2021.
Vaněk, Tomáš; Moťková, Kateřina; Podlipná, Radka (2016). "Accumulation of cadmium by halophytic and non-halophytic Juncus species". Theoretical and Experimental Plant Physiology. 28 (4): 415–423. doi:10.1007/s40626-016-0078-2. S2CID 8363366.

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