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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Magnoliids
Ordo: Magnoliales

Familia: Magnoliaceae
Subfamiliae: Liriodendroidae - Magnolioideae

Genera: Liriodendron – Magnolia

Magnoliaceae Juss. Gen. Pl. 200. (1789), nom. cons.

Type genus: Magnolia L. Sp. Pl. 1: 535. (1753)


Liriodendraceae F.A.Barkley, Phytologia 32: 304. 1975.
Type genus: Liriodendron L.


Jussieu, A.L. de (1789) Genera Plantarum 280. BHL

Additional references

Azuma, H. et al. 2001. Molecular phylogeny of the Magnoliaceae: the biogeography of tropical and temperate disjunctions. Amer. J. Bot. 88: 2275–2285.
Kim, S. et al. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships in family Magnoliaceae inferred from ndhF sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 88: 717–728.
Wang, Y.B., Liu, B.B., Nie, Z.L., Chen, H.F., Chen, F.J., Figlar, R.B. & Wen, J. 2020. Major clades and a revised classification of Magnolia and Magnoliaceae based on whole plastid genome sequences via genome skimming. Journal of Systematics and Evolution 58(5): 673-695. DOI: 10.1111/jse.12588 Open access Reference page.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Magnoliaceae in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2021 May 25. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2020. Magnoliaceae. Published online. Accessed: July 12 2020.
Magnoliaceae - Taxon details on Tela Botanica.

Vernacular names
العربية: ماغنولية
asturianu: Magnoliaceae
azərbaycanca: Maqnoliyakimilər
беларуская: Магноліевыя
български: Магнолиеви
català: Magnoliàcies
čeština: Šácholanovité
dansk: Magnolie-familien
Deutsch: Magnoliengewächse
English: Magnolia family
فارسی: مگنولیان
suomi: Magnoliakasvit
Nordfriisk: Magnoolienplaanten
galego: Magnoliáceas
hrvatski: Magnolijevke
hornjoserbsce: Lilijowcowe rostliny
magyar: Liliomfafélék
հայերեն: Մագնոլիազգիներ
日本語: モクレン科
ქართული: მაგნოლიასებრნი
қазақша: Магнолиялар тұқымдасы
перем коми: Магнолия котыр
한국어: 목련과
коми: Магнолия котыр
lietuvių: Magnolijiniai
македонски: Магнолии
മലയാളം: മഗ്നോളിയേസീ
Nederlands: Tulpenboomfamilie
norsk: Magnoliafamilien
polski: Magnoliowate
پنجابی: میگنولیا ٹبر
русский: Магнолиевые
slovenčina: Magnóliovité
svenska: Magnoliaväxter
తెలుగు: మాగ్నోలియేసి
ไทย: วงศ์จำปา
Türkçe: Manolyagiller
українська: Магнолієві
Tiếng Việt: Họ Mộc lan
中文(简体): 木兰科
中文(繁體): 木蘭科

The Magnoliaceae (/mæɡˌnoʊliˈeɪsii/) are a flowering plant family, the magnolia family, in the order Magnoliales. It consists of two subfamilies: Magnolioideae, of which Magnolia is the best-known genus, and Liriodendroidae, a monogeneric subfamily, of which Liriodendron (tulip trees) is the only genus.

Unlike most angiosperms, whose flower parts are in whorls (rings), the Magnoliaceae have their stamens and pistils in spirals on a conical receptacle.[2] This arrangement is found in some fossil plants and is believed to be a basal or early condition for angiosperms. The flowers also have parts not distinctly differentiated into sepals and petals, while angiosperms that evolved later tend to have distinctly differentiated sepals and petals. The poorly differentiated perianth parts that occupy both positions are known as tepals.

The family has about 219 species and ranges across subtropical eastern North America, Mexico and Central America, the West Indies, tropical South America, southern and eastern India, Sri Lanka, Indochina, Malesia, China, Japan, and Korea.


The number of genera in Magnoliaceae is a subject of debate. Up to 17 have been recognized, including Alcimandra, Lirianthe, Manglietia, Michelia, Pachylarnax, Parakmeria, Talauma and Yulania.[3] However, many recent studies have opted to merge all genera within subfamily Magnolioideae into the genus Magnolia.[4] Thus, Magnoliaceae would include only two extant genera, Magnolia and Liriodendron.
In magnolias, the tepals are arranged in whorls, and the other flower parts are arranged spirally, not in whorls.

The monophyly of Magnoliaceae is supported by a number of shared morphological characters among the various genera in the family. Most have bisexual flowers (with the exception of Kmeria and some species of Magnolia section Gynopodium), showy, fragrant, radial, and with an elongated receptacle. Leaves are alternate, simple, and sometimes lobed. The inflorescence is a solitary, showy flower with indistinguishable petals and sepals. Sepals range from six to many; stamens are numerous and feature short filaments which are poorly differentiated from the anthers. Carpels are usually numerous, distinct, and on an elongated receptacle or torus.[2] The fruit is an etaerio of follicles which usually become closely appressed as they mature and open along the abaxial surface. Seeds have a fleshy coat, aril, and color that ranges from red to orange (except Liriodendron). Magnoliaceae flowers are beetle pollinated, except for Liriodendron, which is bee pollinated. The carpels of Magnolia flowers are especially thick to avoid damage by beetles that land, crawl, and feast on them. The seeds of Magnolioideae are bird-dispersed, while the seeds of Liriodendron are wind-dispersed.

Due to its great age, the geographical distribution of the Magnoliaceae has become disjunct or fragmented as a result of major geologic events such as ice ages, continental drift, and mountain formation. This distribution pattern has isolated some species, while keeping others in close contact. Extant species of the Magnoliaceae are widely distributed in temperate and tropical Asia from the Himalayas to Japan and southwest through Malaysia and New Guinea. Asia is home to about two-thirds of the species in Magnoliaceae, with the remainder of the family spread across the Americas with temperate species extending into southern Canada and tropical elements extending into Brazil and the West Indies.

Due to the family-wide morphological similarity, no consensus has yet emerged on the number of genera in the family. The development of DNA sequencing at the end of the 20th century had a profound impact on the research of phylogenetic relationships within the family. The employment of ndhF and cpDNA sequences has refuted many of the traditionally accepted phylogenetic relationships within the Magnoliaceae. For example, the genera Magnolia and Michelia were shown to be paraphyletic when the remaining four genera of the Magnolioideae are split out. In fact, even many of the subgenera (Magnolia subg. Magnolia, Magnolia subg. Talauma) have been found to be paraphyletic. Although no completely resolved phylogeny for the family has yet been determined, these technological advances have allowed systematists to broadly circumscribe major lineages.[5]
Economic significance

As a whole, the Magnoliaceae are not an economically significant family. With the exception of ornamental cultivation, the economic significance of magnolias is generally confined to the use of wood from certain timber species and the use of bark and flowers from several species believed to possess medicinal qualities. The wood of the American tuliptree, Liriodendron tulipifera and the wood of the cucumbertree magnolia, Magnolia acuminata, and, to a lesser degree, that of the Frasier magnolia, Magnolia fraseri, are harvested and marketed collectively as "yellow poplar." This is a lightweight and exceptionally fine-grained wood, lending itself to precision woodworking for purposes such as pipe organ building.

Magnolias have a rich cultural tradition in China, where references to their healing qualities go back thousands of years. The Chinese have long used the bark of Magnolia officinalis, a magnolia native to the mountains of China with large leaves and fragrant white flowers, as a remedy for cramps, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, and indigestion. Certain magnolia flowers, such as the buds of Magnolia liliiflora, have been used to treat chronic respiratory and sinus infections and lung congestion. Recently, magnolia bark has become incorporated into alternative medicine in the west, where tablets made from the bark of M. officinalis have been marketed as an aid for anxiety, allergies, asthma, and weight loss. Compounds found in magnolia bark might have antibacterial and antifungal properties, but no large-scale study on the health effects of magnolia bark or flowers has yet been conducted.

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x.
Zomlefer, Wndy B. (1994). Guide to Flowering Plant Families. The University of North Carolina Press. pp. 430. ISBN 978-0-8078-4470-0.
"Magnoliaceae in Flora of China @". Retrieved 2018-02-23.
Figlar, Richard B. (June 2012). "Magnolia Classification Information". Retrieved 2018-02-23.

Azuma, H., García-Franco, J. G., Rico-Gray, V., and Thien, L. B. (2001). "Molecular phylogeny of the Magnoliaceae: the biogeography of tropical and temperate disjunctions". American Journal of Botany. 88 (12): 2275–2285. doi:10.2307/3558389. JSTOR 3558389. PMID 21669660.

Hunt, D. (ed). 1998. Magnolias and their allies. International Dendrology Society & Magnolia Society. ISBN 0-9517234-8-0

Further reading

Cicuzza, D., Newton, A. and Oldfield, S. 2007. The Red List of Magnoliaceae Flora & Fauna International (FFI) and Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) report. ISBN 978-1-903703-23-6
F. Xu, P. J. Rudall. Comparative floral anatomy and ontogeny in Magnoliaceae. Plant Systematics and Evolution April 2006, Volume 258, Issue 1-2, pp 1-15

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