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Muscari armeniacum

Muscari armeniacum, Photo: Michael Lahanas

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales

Familia: Asparagaceae
Subfamilia: Scilloideae
Tribus: Hyacintheae
Subtribus: Hyacinthinae
Genus: Muscari
Subgenus: M. subg. Muscari
Species: Muscari armeniacum

Muscari armeniacum H.J.Veitch, Garden (London) 1: 687. 1872.

Homotypic [?]
Muscari armeniacum Leichtlin ex Baker, Gard. Chron. ser. 2, 9: 798. 1878. nom. illeg.
Typus: material of unknown origin cultivated at Kew (Holotypus: K).
Muscari concinnum Baker, Gard. Chron., n.s., 9: 799. 1878.
Botryanthus conicus Jord. & Fourr., Icon. Pl. Eur. 2: 24. 1870.
Muscari conicum (Jord. & Fourr.) Baker, Gard. Chron., n.s., 9: 799. 1878.
Muscari micranthum Baker, Gard. Chron., n.s., 9: 799. 1878.
Botryanthus micranthus Baker, Gard. Chron., n.s., 9: 799. 1878. nom. inval. (in synonymy)
Muscari polyanthum Boiss., Fl. Orient. 5: 297. 1882.
Muscari argaei auct., Gard. Chron., n.s., 20: 394. 1883.
Muscari pauperulum Stapf, Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Wien. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 50: 78. 1885.
Muscari schliemannii Freyn & Asch., Flora 68: 6. 1885.
Muscari maweanum Baker, Gard. Chron., ser. 3, 5: 648. 1889.
Muscari pyramidatum Velen., Fl. Bulg.: 576. 1891.
Muscari apertum Freyn & Conrath, Bull. Herb. Boissier 4: 194. 1896.
Bellevalia aperta (Freyn & Conrath) Grossh., Fl. Kavkaza 1: 233. 1928. DJVU
Pseudomuscari apertum (Freyn & Conrath) Garbari, Atti Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat. Pisa, Mem. 77: 112. 1970 publ. 1971. PDF
Muscari colchicum Grossh., Trudy Azerbaidzhansk. Otd. Zakavkazsk. Fil. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 1: 50. 1933.
Muscari cyaneoviolaceum Turrill, Bot. Mag. 157: t. 9372. 1934.
Muscari argaei f. album Tubergen, Nursery Cat. (van Tubergen) 1935: ?. 1935.
Muscari woronowii Tron & Losinsk. in V.L.Komarov (ed.), Fl. URSS 4: 744. 1935. DJVU
Muscari sosnowskyi Schchian, Trudy Tbilissk. Bot. Inst. 10: 224. 1946.
Muscari elegantulum Schchian, Zametki Sist. Geogr. Rast. 17: 114. 1953. DJVU
Muscari alexandrae A.P.Khokhr., Byull. Moskovsk. Obshch. Isp. Prir., Otd. Biol., n.s., 96(4): 106. 1991. DJVU

Native distribution areas:

Continental: Europe
Regional: Southeastern Europe
Bulgaria, Greece, Turkey-in-Europe, Yugoslavia
Continental: Asia-Temperate
Regional: Caucasus
North Caucasus, Transcaucasus
Regional: Western Asia

Muscari armeniacum

Muscari armeniacum (*)

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition

Davis, P.H. & Stuart, D.C. 1984. Muscari. Pp. 245–263 in Davis, P.H. (ed.), Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Vol. 8 (Butomaceae to Typhaceae). Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 632 pp., ISBN 0-85224-494-0. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2017. Muscari armeniacum in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2017 12 28. Reference page.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Muscari armeniacum in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 07-Oct-06.

Vernacular names
čeština: Modřenec arménský
Deutsch: Armenische Traubenhyazinthe
suomi: Tummahelmililja
hornjoserbsce: Armenska kitelnička
polski: Szafirek armeński
svenska: Armenisk pärlhyacint

Muscari armeniacum is a species of flowering plant in the squill subfamily Scilloideae of the asparagus family Asparagaceae (formerly the lilies, Liliaceae). It is a bulbous perennial with basal, simple leaves and short flowering stems. It is one of a number of species and genera known as grape hyacinth, in this case Armenian grape hyacinth[1] or garden grape-hyacinth.[2] The flowers are purple, blue (with a white fringe), white (cv. ‘Album’) or pale pink (cv. ‘Pink Sunrise’) and the plants are usually 15 centimetres (6 in) tall. M. armeniacum blooms in mid-Spring (April or May in the Northern Hemisphere) for 3–4 weeks. Some selections are fragrant. Established bulbs leaf in the autumn. M. armeniacum is widespread in the woods and meadows of the Eastern Mediterranean, from Greece and Turkey to the Caucasus,[3] including Armenia which gives it its name.


Muscari armeniacum is one of the most commonly cultivated species of Muscari, is robust and naturalises easily.[4] It appeared in European gardens in 1871.[5] The following have gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit:[6]

M. armeniacum[7]
M. armeniacum ‘Christmas Pearl’[8]
M. armeniacum ‘Jenny Robinson’[9]
M. armeniacum ‘Saffier’[10]

Cultivars listed by Mathew include 'Blue Spike' and 'Cantab'.[4] Others include 'Argaei Album' and 'Album' (white), 'Côte d'Azur', 'Dark Eyes, 'Early Giant', 'Fantasy Creation', 'Peppermint', 'Saffier', 'Valerie Finnis' (pale blue), and 'Pink Sunrise' (pale pink). The commonly available form is often referred to as M. armeniacum 'Blue'.[11][12]

'Blue Spike' is a double flowered variety, with double florets on the flower stalk.[13] 'Cantab' is pale blue. 'Fantasy Creation' is a sport (a naturally occurring genetic mutation) of 'Blue Spike'. [14] 'Atlantic' is light blue, introduced by Jan van Bentem in 2002, by hybridisation in 1990 from M. armeniacum and an unknown parent.[15]


Grey-Wilson, Christopher; Mathew, Brian & Blamey, Marjorie (1981), Bulbs : the bulbous plants of Europe and their allies, London: Collins, ISBN 978-0-00-219211-8, p. 115
BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
"Muscari". Pacific Bulb Society. 2013-04-24. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
Mathew, Brian (1987), The Smaller Bulbs, London: B.T. Batsford, ISBN 978-0-7134-4922-8, pp. 126
"Paghat's Garden: Armenian Grape Hyacinth". Retrieved 2013-10-03.
"AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 65. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
"RHS Plantfinder - Muscari armeniacum". Retrieved 9 April 2018.
"RHS Plantfinder - Muscari armeniacum 'Christmas Pearl'". Retrieved 9 April 2018.
"RHS Plantfinder - Muscari armeniacum 'Jenny Robinson'". Retrieved 9 April 2018.
"RHS Plantfinder - Muscari armeniacum 'Saffier'". Retrieved 9 April 2018.
"The Plant Expert: Muscari". Archived from the original on 2009-11-25. Retrieved 2010-10-24.
"Pacific Bulb Society". Pacific Bulb Society. 2013-04-24. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
"Northern Shade Gardening: Blue Muscari". Retrieved 2013-10-03.
"Martin Philippo: Muscaripages - Fantasy Creation". Archived from the original on 2011-06-14. Retrieved 2013-10-03.

"Muscari armeniacum "Atlantic'". Archived from the original on 2009-08-14.


Taylor's guide to Bulbs. Houghton Miflin Boston 1986. p. 350. ISBN 0-395-40449-5

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