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Narcissus pseudonarcissus

Narcissus pseudonarcissus, Photo: Michael Lahanas

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales

Familia: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamilia: Amaryllidoideae
Tribus: Narcisseae
Genus: Narcissus
Subgenus: N. subg. Narcissus
Sectio: N. sect. Pseudonarcissi
Species: Narcissus pseudonarcissus
Name

Narcissus pseudonarcissus L., Sp Pl. 1: 289 (1753).
Synonyms

Homotypic
Ajax pseudonarcissus (L.) Haw., Monogr. Narciss. 2 (1831).
Heterotypic
Narcissus sylvestris Lam., Fl. Franç. 3: 390 (1779).
Narcissus serratus Haw., Misc. Nat.: 179 (1803).
Narcissus glaucus Hornem., Hort. Bot. Hafn. 1: 315 (1813).
Narcissus radians Lapeyr., Hist. Pl. Pyrénées: 177 (1813).
Narcissus ajax Sweet, Hort. Suburb. Lond.: 67 (1818).
Narcissus capax Salisb. ex Sweet, Hort. Suburb. Lond.: 67 (1818), nom. illeg.
Ajax festalis var. plenissimus Haw., Suppl. Pl. Succ.: 114 (1819).
Ajax festalis var. plenus Haw., Suppl. Pl. Succ.: 114 (1819).
Ajax festalis var. scoticus Haw., Suppl. Pl. Succ.: 113 (1819).
Ajax serratus (Haw.) Haw., Suppl. Pl. Succ.: 114 (1819).
Ajax serratus var. suavis Haw., Suppl. Pl. Succ.: 115 (1819).
Ajax telamonius Haw., Suppl. Pl. Succ.: 115 (1819).
Ajax telamonius var. grandiplenus Haw., Suppl. Pl. Succ.: 115 (1819).
Ajax telamonius var. plenus Haw., Suppl. Pl. Succ.: 115 (1819), nom. nud.
Ajax fenestralis Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 191 (1822) [1821 publ. 1822].
Ajax fenestralis var. scoticus (Haw.) Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 192 (1822) [1821 publ. 1822].
Ajax cuneifolius Haw., Saxifrag. Enum. 2: 43 (1821).
Narcissus telamonius (Haw.) Link, Handbuch 1: 204 (1829).
Ajax lobularis Haw., Philos. Mag. Ann. Chem. 9: 131 (1830).
Ajax breviflos Haw., Monogr. Narciss. 2: 6 (1831).
Ajax cambricus Haw., Monogr. Narciss. 2: 3 (1831).
Ajax lobularis var. amplicorona Haw. in R.Sweet, Brit. Fl. Gard., ser. 2, 25(App.): 3 (1831).
Ajax lobularis var. scotica Haw. in R.Sweet, Brit. Fl. Gard., ser. 2, 25(App.): 3 (1831).
Ajax pseudonarcissus var. albus Haw. in R.Sweet, Brit. Fl. Gard., ser. 2, 25(App.): 2 (1831).
Ajax pseudonarcissus var. luteus Haw. in R.Sweet, Brit. Fl. Gard., ser. 2, 25(App.): 2 (1831).
Ajax pseudonarcissus var. pallidus Haw. in R.Sweet, Brit. Fl. Gard., ser. 2, 25(App.): 2 (1831).
Ajax pseudonarcissus var. plenissimus Haw. in R.Sweet, Brit. Fl. Gard., ser. 2, 25(App.): 2 (1831).
Ajax pseudonarcissus var. pleurus Haw. in R.Sweet, Brit. Fl. Gard., ser. 2, 25(App.): 2 (1831).
Ajax serratus var. praecox Haw. in R.Sweet, Brit. Fl. Gard., ser. 2, 25(App.): 3 (1831).
Ajax serratus var. radians Haw. in R.Sweet, Brit. Fl. Gard., ser. 2, 25(App.): 3 (1831).
Oileus hexangularis Haw., Monogr. Narciss.: 4 (1831).
Ajax hexangularis (Haw.) Herb., Amaryllidaceae: 305 (1837).
Ajax pseudonarcissus var. ryticarpus Herb., Amaryllidaceae: 300 (1837).
Ajax pseudonarcissus var. telamonius (Haw.) Herb., Amaryllidaceae: 301 (1837).
Ajax sabiniamus Herb., Amaryllidaceae: 306 (1837).
Narcissus breviflos (Haw.) Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 181 (1841).
Ajax capax M.Roem., Fam. Nat. Syn. Monogr. 4: 201 (1847).
Ajax radians M.Roem., Fam. Nat. Syn. Monogr. 4: 193 (1847).
Ajax rudbeckii M.Roem., Fam. Nat. Syn. Monogr. 4: 201 (1847).
Ajax sexangularis M.Roem., Fam. Nat. Syn. Monogr. 4: 201 (1847).
Narcissus andersonii Sabine ex M.Roem., Fam. Nat. Syn. Monogr. 4: 198 (1847).
Narcissus renaudii Bavoux., Mém. Soc. Émul. Doubs, sér. 2, 4: 114 (1854).
Ajax multicus J.Gay, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 7: 308 (1860).
Narcissus horsfeldii Burb., Narcissus: 30 (1875).
Narcissus pseudonarcissus var. grandiplenus (Haw.) Burb., Narcissus: 28 (1875).
Narcissus pseudonarcissus var. plenissimus J.C.Niven, Garden (London, 1871-1927) 7: 5 (1875).
Narcissus pseudonarcissus var. plenus J.C.Niven, Garden (London, 1871-1927) 7: 5 (1875).
Narcissus eystettensis auct., Gard. Chron., n.s., 21: 484 (1884).
Narcissus pseudonarcissus f. cambricus (Haw.) Voss, Vilm. Blumengärtn. ed. 3, 1: 1023 (1895).
Narcissus pseudonarcissus f. lobularis (Haw.) Voss, Vilm. Blumengärtn. ed. 3, 1: 1023 (1895).
Narcissus pseudonarcissus f. serratus (Haw.) Voss, Vilm. Blumengärtn. ed. 3, 1: 1023 (1895).
Narcissus luteus Bubani, Fl. Pyren. 4: 156 (1902).
Ajax festinus Jord. in A.Jordan & J.P.Fourreau, Icon. Fl. Eur. 3: 2 (1903).
Ajax gayi Hénon in A.Jordan & J.P.Fourreau, Icon. Fl. Eur. 3: 2 (1903).
Ajax montinus Jord. in A.Jordan & J.P.Fourreau, Icon. Fl. Eur. 3: 3 (1903).
Ajax platylobus Jord. in A.Jordan & J.P.Fourreau, Icon. Fl. Eur. 3: 2 (1903).
Ajax porrigens Jord. in A.Jordan & J.P.Fourreau, Icon. Fl. Eur. 3: 3 (1903).
Ajax praelongus Jord. in A.Jordan & J.P.Fourreau, Icon. Fl. Eur. 3: 2 (1903).
Narcissus gandogeri Sennen & Leroy, Exsicc. (Pl. Esp.) 1925: n.º 5635 (1926).
Narcissus gayi (Hénon) Pugsley, J. Roy. Hort. Soc. 58: 72 (1933).
Narcissus gayi var. praelongus (Jord.) Pugsley, J. Roy. Hort. Soc. 58: 73 (1933).
Narcissus pisanus Pugsley, J. Roy. Hort. Soc. 58: 59 (1933).
Narcissus pseudonarcissus var. festinus (Jord.) Pugsley, J. Roy. Hort. Soc. 58: 64 (1933).
Narcissus pseudonarcissus var. humilis Pugsley, J. Roy. Hort. Soc. 58: 65 (1933).
Narcissus pseudonarcissus var. insignis Pugsley, J. Roy. Hort. Soc. 58: 65 (1933).
Narcissus pseudonarcissus var. minoriformis Pugsley, J. Roy. Hort. Soc. 58: 64 (1933).
Narcissus pseudonarcissus var. montinus (Jord.) Pugsley, J. Roy. Hort. Soc. 58: 64 (1933).
Narcissus pseudonarcissus var. platylobus (Jord.) Pugsley, J. Roy. Hort. Soc. 58: 64 (1933).
Narcissus pseudonarcissus var. porrigens (Jord.) Pugsley, J. Roy. Hort. Soc. 58: 64 (1944).
Narcissus pseudonarcissus var. pisanus (Pugsley) A.Fern., Daffodil Tulip Year Book 33: 59 (1968).
Narcissus fontqueri Fern.Casas & Rivas Ponce, Fontqueria 21: 27 (1988).
Narcissus pseudonarcissus f. pleniflorus P.D.Sell in P.D.Sell & G.Murrell, Fl. Great Britain Ireland 5: 364 (1996).

Hybrids

N. × backhousei – N. × bakeri – N. × fenzii – N. × humei – N. × incomparabilis – N. × margaritae – N. × monochromus – N. × nelsonii – N. × odorus – N. × taitii – N. × victoriae
Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Merodon clavipes

Merodon clavipes (Beautiful Merodon Hover-fly. Extinct in Britain.The plant is Narcissus pseudonarcissus (Common Daffodil)

References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 289. Reference page.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2018. Narcissus pseudonarcissus in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2018 Aug. 05. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Narcissus pseudonarcissus. Published online. Accessed: Aug. 05 2018.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Narcissus pseudonarcissus in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 07-Oct-06.

Vernacular names
Cymraeg: Cenhinen Bedr
dansk: Påskelilje
Deutsch: Gelbe Narzisse
English: Wild daffodil
Esperanto: Dafodilo
eesti: Kollane nartsiss
euskara: Lilipa arrunt, anbulo gaizto
suomi: Keltanarsissi
Nordfriisk: Puaskruus
français: Narcisse jaune
magyar: Csupros nárcisz
日本語: ラッパスイセン
Nederlands: Wilde narcis
norsk nynorsk: Påskelilje
norsk: Påskelilje
português: Narcissus
svenska: Påsklilja
Türkçe: Yabani nergis
中文: 黄水仙

Narcissus pseudonarcissus (commonly known as wild daffodil or Lent lily) (Welsh: Cennin Pedr) is a perennial flowering plant.[1][2][3][4][5][6]

This species has pale yellow tepals, with a darker central trumpet. The long, narrow leaves are slightly greyish green in colour and rise from the base of the stem. The plant grows from a bulb. The flowers produce seeds, which when germinated, take five to seven years to produce a flowering plant. (Sexual seed reproduction mixes the traits of both parent flowers, so if garden hybrid cultivars are planted close to wild populations of Narcissus pseudonarcissus, there is a danger that the new seedlings, having hybrid vigour, could out-compete the wild plants.)[7]

Distribution
Narcissus pseudonarcissus growing in Hallerbos (Belgium)

The species is native to Western Europe from Spain and Portugal east to Germany and north to England and Wales. It is commonly grown in gardens and populations have become established in the Balkans, Australia, New Zealand, the Caucasus, Madeira, British Columbia, Ontario, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Oregon, Washington state, much of eastern United States, and the Falkland Islands. Wild plants grow in woods, grassland and on rocky ground. In Britain native populations have decreased substantially since the 19th century due to intensification of agriculture, clearance of woodland and uprooting of the bulbs for use in gardens. In Germany it was a subject of a national awareness campaign for the protection of wildflowers in 1981.

In England, the Farndale valley in the North York Moors National Park hosts a large population of the species, along the banks of the River Dove. There are several nature reserves in Gloucestershire supporting large populations of the species near Dymock Woods SSSI. There is a Daffodil Walk Trail around several reserves in the spring.[8][9]
Taxonomy
Synonyms

The history of N. pseudonarcissus has generated a large number of synonyms,[10] including:
Synonym list
Subspecies

There are a number of subspecies of the wild daffodil but the exact number varies according to different authors. The large number of cultivars adds to the difficulty of classification. Among the subspecies is the Tenby daffodil (N. pseudonarcissus ssp. obvallaris, sometimes classed as a separate species), which probably originated in cultivation but now grows wild in southwest Wales. Many of the subspecies listed below are currently considered as species by the Royal Horticultural Society, the International Cultivar Registration Authority for daffodils.[11] Those marked agm are recipients of the RHS Award of Garden Merit.

ssp. pseudonarcissus agm[12] Narcissus pseudonarcissus subsp. pseudonarcissus - Lent lily, wild daffodil - England and Wales
ssp. bicolor (syn. N. bicolor L.)
ssp. calcicarpetanus Fernández Casas
ssp. eugeniae - Central Spain (syn. N. eugeniae Fernández Casas)
ssp. major - Spanish daffodil, great daffodil - Iberia (syn. N. hispanicus Gouan.)
ssp. moschatus (L.) Baker agm[13] - swan's-neck daffodil (syn. ssp. candidissimus Desf.; syn. N. moschatus L., N. alpestris Pugsley.)
ssp. munozii-garmendiae Fernández Casas
ssp. nevadensis - Iberia (syn. N. nevadensis Pugsley)
ssp. nobilis - (syn. N. nobilis (Haw.) Schult. & Schult.f.) large flower daffodil - Iberia. The largest floral diameter of Narcissus, at over 12.5 cm
ssp. obvallaris agm[14] - Tenby daffodil - southern Wales (syn. N. obvallaris, Salisb., sometimes considered to be derived from relict cultivation of ssp. major [1])
ssp. pallidiflorus - pale flower daffodil - Spain and France
ssp. portensis - Iberia (syn. N. portensis Pugsley)
ssp. pugsleyanus Barra & López - Spain
ssp. radinganorum (syn. N. radinganorum Fernández Casas) - southeast Spain

Varieties

Narcissus pseudonarcissus ssp. pseudonarcissus itself has eight varieties (described by H.W. Pugsley in an article in the Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society of 1933), including var. festinus, var. humilis, var. insignis, var. minoriformis, var. montinus, var. platylobus and var. porrigens. The eighth variety described by Pugsley, var. pisanus, was further defined by A. Fernandes in the Daffodil and Tulip Year Book of 1968.
Double-flowered cultivars

Recent research in Wales, southwest England and northern France by keen horticulturists has discovered a small number of remarkably distinct, double-flowered specimens of N. pseudonarcissus growing among wild or naturalised populations of normal N. pseudonarcissus. Such rare forms were known to exist as long ago as the late 16th and early 17th century by botanists and herbalists such as John Gerard and John Parkinson, who variously described them as "Pseudonarcissus Anglicus flore pleno", "Gerrards double Daffodill" and later "The English Double Daffodil". Bulbs have been collected with the landowners' permission and it is hoped that some of these unusual cultivars may become commercially available in the future.[15]
Emblem

The daffodil is the national flower of Wales, it is called Cennin Pedr (Peter's Leek) in Welsh. The daffodil is also the county flower of Gloucestershire.[16]
Health risks

Like all Narcissus species, daffodils contain the alkaloid poison lycorine, mostly in the bulb, but also in the leaves.[17][18] Because of this, daffodil bulbs and leaves should never be eaten.
See also

List of Award of Garden Merit narcissus
List of Narcissus species
List of plants known as lily

References

Linnaeus, Carl. 1753. Species Plantarum 1: 289, Narcissus pseudonarcissus
Gray, Samuel Frederick. 1821. Natural Arrangement of British Plants, According to Their Relation to Each Other 2:191, as Ajax fenestralis
Jordan, Claude Thomas Alexis. 1903. Jord. & Fourr. Icon. Fl. Eur. iii. 2. as Ajax festinus
Pugsley, Herbert William. 1933. Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society 1933, 58:72, as Narcissus gayi
Sell, Peter Derek. 1996. Flora of Great Britain and Ireland 5: 364, as Narcissus pseudonarcissus forma pleniflorus
Haworth, Adrian Hardy. 1831. Monog. Narciss. 4, as Oileus hexangularis
Simons, Paul (26 April 2013). "Plantwatch: Under attack – the wild British daffodil". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 Dec 2014.
2011, 'Nature Reserve Guide', Gloucestershire Wildlife Trust published for its 50th anniversary
'The Daffodil Trails', (undated), Gloucestershire Wildlife Trust
"Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. — The Plant List". www.theplantlist.org.
"Botanical names in the genus Narcissus". rhs.org.uk. Royal Horticultural Society. December 2016. Retrieved 2017-07-02.
"Narcissus pseudonarcissus subsp. pseudonarcissus". RHS. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
"Narcissus moschatus". RHS. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
"Narcissus obvallaris". RHS. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
Street, Alan (2014). Double Lent lily. Daffodil, Snowdrop and Tulip Yearbook 2014. London: Royal Horticultural Society. pp. 12–15. ISBN 9781907057533.
Plantlife website County Flowers page Archived 2015-04-30 at the Wayback Machine
Food and nutrition Daffodil dinner Archived 2009-01-04 at the Wayback Machine David Trinklein, Department of Horticulture, University of Missouri, Accessed March 2008

"Pupils ill after bulb put in soup". BBC News. 2009-05-03. Retrieved 2010-03-27.

Further reading
Newton, Rosemary; Hay, Fiona; Ellis, Richard (February 2015). "Ecophysiology of seed dormancy and the control of germination in early spring-flowering Galanthus nivalis and Narcissus pseudonarcissus (Amaryllidaceae)". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 177 (2): 246–262. doi:10.1111/boj.12240.

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