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Orchis simia

Orchis simia , Photo : Paolo Bertaccini

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales

Familia: Orchidaceae
Subfamilia: Orchidoideae
Tribus: Orchideae
Subtribus: Orchidinae
Genus: Orchis
Subgenus: Orchis subg. Orchis
Sectio: Orchis sect. Orchis
Species: Orchis simia
Subspecies: (2)
O. simia. subsp. simia – O. simia. subsp. taubertiana

Orchis simia Lam., Fl. Franç. 3: 507 (1779)

Orchis militaris var. simia (Lam.) Gaudin, Fl. Helv. 5: 434 (1829)
Orchis militaris subsp. simia (Lam.) Bonnier & Layens, Tabl. Syn. Pl. Vasc. France 1: 310 (1894)
Orchis simia var. alba St.-Lag. in A.Cariot, Étude Fl., éd. 8, 2: 801 (1889)


Orchis simia Vill., Hist. Pl. Dauphiné 2: 33 (1787), nom. illeg. - vide: Neotinea tridentata subsp. tridentata

Native distribution areas:

Northern Europe
Great Britain.
Middle Europe
Belgium, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Switzerland.
Southwestern Europe
Baleares, France, Spain.
Southeastern Europe
Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Kriti, Romania, Turkey-in-Europe, Yugoslavia.
Eastern Europe
Northern Africa
Algeria, Libya, Tunisia.
Middle Asia
North Caucasus, Transcaucasus.
Western Asia
Cyprus, East Aegean Islands, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon-Syria, Palestine, Turkey.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition

Primary references

Lamarck, J.-B. 1779. Flore Françoise 3: 507.
Kretzschmar, H., Eccarius, W. & Dietrich, H. 2007. Die Orchideengattungen Anacamptis, Orchis, Neotinea. EchinoMedia-Verlag, Bürgel. Table of contents. ISBN 978-3937-10711-0. Reference page.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Orchis simia in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 May 23. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Orchis simia in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 May 23. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2020. Orchis simia. Published online. Accessed: 23 May 2020.
The Plant List 2013. Orchis simia in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 May 23. 2020. Orchis simia. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 May 23.

Vernacular names

العربية: سحلب سيمي
azərbaycanca: Meymun səhləbi
Cymraeg: Tegeirian y mwnci
Deutsch: Affen-Knabenkraut
English: Monkey orchid
فارسی: ثعلب میمونی
français: Orchis singe
Frysk: Aapkeskaaiblom
hornjoserbsce: Zapadna pihawka
magyar: Majomkosbor
հայերեն: Խոլորձ կապիկի
Limburgs: Aeëpkesorchis
Nederlands: Aapjesorchis
norsk: Apeorkide
polski: Storczyk małpi
русский: Ятрышник обезьяний
тоҷикӣ: Саълаби маймунӣ
Türkçe: Salep püskülü
українська: Зозулинець мавпячий

Orchis simia, commonly known as the monkey orchid, is a greyish pink to reddish species of the genus Orchis. It gets its common name from its lobed lip which mimics the general shape of a monkey's body.[1]

The range of the species is central and southern Europe, including southern England, the Mediterranean, Russia, Asia Minor, Caucasus, northern Iraq, Iran to Turkmenistan and northern Africa[2][3] where it occurs in grassland, garrigue, scrub and open woodland, chiefly on limestone soils. It is absent from the Balearic Islands, Corsica and Sardinia.[4] On Cyprus the species can be categorized as threatened,[2] and it became a protected species in the UK in 1975 under the Conservation of Wild Creatures and Wild Plants Act.[5]

Foley, M.; Clarke, S. (2005). Orchids of the British Isles. Griffin Press for Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. p. 158. ISBN 0954191617.
Kreutz, C.A.J. (2004). The orchids of Cyprus. Kreutz. p. 353. ISBN 9080662631.
Pridgeon, Alex (1992). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Orchids. Timber Press. p. 208. ISBN 0-88192-267-6.
Blamey, M; Grey-Wilson, C. (2005). Wild flowers of the Mediterranean. domino Books Ltd. p. 512. ISBN 0713670150.
"Caithness CWS - Caithness Field Club - Annual Bulletins - 1975 - October - Conservation". Retrieved 2021-08-30.

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