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Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Magnoliophyta
Classis: Magnoliopsida
Ordo: Lamiales
Familia: Orobanchaceae
Genus: Orobanche
Species: O. aegyptiaca - O. amethystea - O. cernua - O. coerulescens - O. cooperi - O. crenata - O. fasciculata - O. flava - O. latisquama - O. lavandulacea - O. lucorum - O. ludoviciana - O. major - O. minor - O. mutelii - O. pycnostachya - O. ramosa - O. salviae - O. variegata


Orobanche L.

Vernacular names
Български: Воловодец, Синя китка
Dansk: Gyvelkvæler
Deutsch: Sommerwurz
English: Broomrape
Nederlands: Bremraap
Русский: Заразиха
Suomi: Näiveet
Türkçe: Canavar otu, Erem otu, Bostanbozan, Baklakıran

Broomrape or Broom-rape (Orobanche) is a genus of over 200 species of parasitic herbaceous plants in the family Orobanchaceae, mostly native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere.[1] Some species formerly included in this genus are now referred to the genus Conopholis. The broomrape plant is small, from 10–60 cm tall depending on species. It is best recognized by its yellow-to-straw coloured stems completely lacking chlorophyll, bearing yellow, white or blue, snapdragon-like flowers. The flower shoots are scaly, with a dense terminal spike of 10-20 flowers in most species, though single in O. uniflora. The leaves are merely triangular scales. The seeds are minute, tan-to-brown, and blacken with age. These plants generally flower from late winter to late spring. When they are not flowering, no part of these plants is visible above the surface of the soil.

As they have no chlorophyll, they are totally dependent on other plants for nutrients. Broomrape seeds remain dormant in the soil, often for many years, until stimulated to germinate by certain compounds produced by living plant roots.[2] Broomrape seedlings put out a root-like growth, which attaches to the roots of nearby hosts. Once attached to a host, the broomrape robs its host of water and nutrients.

Some species are only able to parasitise a single plant species, such as Ivy Broomrape Orobanche hederae, which is restricted to parasitising ivy; these species are often named after the plant they parasitise. Others can infect several genera, such as the Lesser Broomrape O. minor, on Trifolium and other related Fabaceae.

Branched broomrape Orobanche ramosa, native to central and southwestern Europe but widely naturalised elsewhere, is considered a major threat to crops in some areas. Plants that are parasitized are tomato, eggplant, potato, cabbage, coleus, bell pepper, sunflower, celery, and beans. In heavily infested areas, branched broomrape can cause total crop failure.

The stems of a species parasitic on the fava bean are gathered and eaten in the region of Puglia, Italy, where they are given the name spocchia.[3]

Selected species

(Note: this list includes names of more recently described species that may, under further taxonomic scrutiny, prove to be synonyms.)

Orobanche aconiti-lycoctoni Moreno Mor. et al.
Orobanche aegyptiaca Pers. (Egyptian Broomrape; Fenzhi Broomrape)
Orobanche akiana Honda
Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd. (Thyme Broomrape; Baihua Broomrape)
Orobanche alexandri Tineo
Orobanche almeriensis A.Pujadas
Orobanche alpigena K.Koch
Orobanche alsatica Kirschl. (Alsace Broomrape; Duose Broomrape)
Orobanche amethystea Thuill. (Eryngium Broomrape)
Orobanche amoena C.A.Mey.
Orobanche anatolica Boiss. & Reut.
Orobanche androssovii Novopokr.
Orobanche angelicifixa Peteaux & St.-Lag.
Orobanche angustisepala F.W.Schultz
Orobanche angustelaciniata Gilli
Orobanche arbuti Sennen
Orobanche arcuata F.W.Schultz
Orobanche arenaria Borkh. (Wormwood Broomrape)
Orobanche ariana Gontsch.
Orobanche armena Tzvelev
Orobanche artemisiae-campestris Vaucher ex Gaudin
Orobanche astragali Mouterde
Orobanche auranitica Mouterde
Orobanche australiana F.Muell.
Orobanche austrohispanica M.J.Y.Foley
Orobanche badchysensis Novopokr. & V.V.Nikitin
Orobanche balearica Sennen & Pau
Orobanche ballotae A.Pujadas
Orobanche baumanniorum Greuter
Orobanche benkertii Rätzel & Uhlich
Orobanche berthelotti Webb & Berthel.
Orobanche boissieri Rchb.f.
Orobanche borbasiana Beck
Orobanche borealis Turcz.
Orobanche borissovae Novopokr.
Orobanche brachypoda Novopokr.
Orobanche bracteata Viv.
Orobanche brassicae (Novopokr.) Novopokr.
Orobanche brevidens Novopokr.
Orobanche breviflora F.W.Schultz
Orobanche bucharica Novopokr.
Orobanche bulbosa Beck
Orobanche bungeana Beck
Orobanche caerulescens Steph. ex Willd.
Orobanche calendulae Pomel
Orobanche californica Cham. & Schltdl.
Orobanche camptolepis Boiss. & Reut.
Orobanche canescens C.Presl
Orobanche carnea Guss.
Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. (Bedstraw Broomrape; Simao Broomstraw)
Orobanche cathae Deflers
Orobanche caucasica Beck
Orobanche caudata De Not.
Orobanche cernua Loefl. (Nodding Broomrape; Wanguan Broomrape)
Orobanche chassia Formánek
Orobanche chironii Lojac.
Orobanche chrysacanthi Maire
Orobanche cilicica Beck
Orobanche cistanchoides Beck
Orobanche clarkei Hook.f. (Xizang Broomrape)
Orobanche clausonis Pomel
Orobanche clavata Schiman-Czeika
Orobanche clementei C.Vicioso
Orobanche coelestis (Reut.) Boiss. & Reut. ex Beck (Changchi Broomrape)
Orobanche coerulescens Stephan ex Willd.
Orobanche colorata K.Koch
Orobanche columbiana H.St.John & English
Orobanche comosula Novopokr.
Orobanche compacta Viv.
Orobanche concreta Rouy
Orobanche connata K.Koch
Orobanche consimilis Schiman-Czeika
Orobanche cooperi (A.Gray) A.Heller (Cooper's Broomrape)
Orobanche corymbosa (Rydb.) Ferris (Flat-top Broomrape)
Orobanche crenata Forssk. (Bean Broomrape)
Orobanche cuprea Boiss. & Balansa ex Boiss.
Orobanche curvata Pomel
Orobanche cypria Kotschy
Orobanche cyrenaica Beck
Orobanche cyrnea Jeanm., Habashi & Manen
Orobanche densiflora Salzm. ex Reut.
Orobanche denudata Moris
Orobanche dhofarensis M.J.Y.Foley
Orobanche ducellieri Maire
Orobanche dugesii (S.Watson) Munz
Orobanche ebuli Huter & Rigo
Orobanche elatior Sutton (Knapweed Broomrape; Duanchun Broomrape)
Orobanche eriophora Bornm. & Gauba
Orobanche esulae Pančić
Orobanche euglossa Rchb.f.
Orobanche fasciculata Nutt. (Cluster Broomrape; Fascicled Broomrape)
Orobanche feddei H.Lév.
Orobanche felicicola Nakai ex Hyun, Y.S.Lim & H.C.Shin
Orobanche flava Mart. ex F.W.Schultz (Butterbur Broomrape)
Orobanche foetida Poir.
Orobanche fuliginosa Reut. ex Jord.
Orobanche fuscovinosa Maire
Orobanche gamosepala Reut.
Orobanche georgii-reuteri (Carlon et al.) A.Pujadas
Orobanche glabrata C.A.Mey.
Orobanche glabricaulis Tzvelev
Orobanche gontscharovii Novopokr. & Nepli
Orobanche gracilis Sm.(Slender Broomrape)
Orobanche grandisepala F.W.Schultz
Orobanche grayana Beck (Gray's Broomrape)
Orobanche grigorjevii Novopokr.
Orobanche grisebachii Reut.
Orobanche grossheimii Novopokr.
Orobanche hadroantha Beck
Orobanche haenseleri Reut.
Orobanche hederae Duby (Ivy Broomrape)
Orobanche helianthemi J.St.-Hil.
Orobanche hellebori Miégev.
Orobanche hermonis Mouterde
Orobanche hirtiflora Tzvelev
Orobanche hookeriana Ball
Orobanche humbertii Maire
Orobanche hydrocotylei Colenso
Orobanche hymenocalyx Reut.
Orobanche hypertomentosa M.J.Y.Foley
Orobanche iammonensis A.Pujadas & P.Fraga
Orobanche ianthina Franch.
Orobanche icterica Pau
Orobanche insignis E.D.Clarke
Orobanche insolita Guim.
Orobanche interrupta Pers.
Orobanche inulae Novopokr. & Abramov
Orobanche ionantha Kern.
Orobanche irtyschensis Serg.
Orobanche karatavica Pavlov
Orobanche kashmirica C.B.Clarke ex Hook.f.
Orobanche kelleri Novopokr. (Duanchi Broomrape)
Orobanche kotschyi Reut. (Yitong Broomrape)
Orobanche krylowii Beck (Siduomao Broomrape)
Orobanche kurdica Boiss. & Hausskn.
Orobanche lactucae Arv.-Touv.
Orobanche langei Huter, Porta & Rigo
Orobanche lanuginosa (C.A.Mey.) Beck ex Krylov (Mao Broomrape)
Orobanche laserpitii-sileris Reut. ex Jord.
Orobanche latisquama (F.W.Schultz) Batt.
Orobanche lavandulacea Rchb.
Orobanche laxissima Uhlich & Rätzel
Orobanche leptantha Pomel
Orobanche linczevskii Novopokr.
Orobanche longibracteata Schiman-Czeika
Orobanche lucana Terracc.
Orobanche lucorum A.Braun (Barberry Broomrape)
Orobanche ludoviciana Nutt. (Prairie Broomrape; Desert Broomrape)
Orobanche lutea Baumg. (Medick Broomrape)
Orobanche lycica F.W.Schultz
Orobanche mariana A.Pujadas
Orobanche maritima Pugsley (Carrot Broomrape)
Orobanche megalantha Harry Sm. (Dahua Broomrape)
Orobanche melitensis Beck
Orobanche minor Sm. (Common Broomrape; Clover Broomrape; Lesser Broomrape; Small Broomrape)
Orobanche mongolica Beck (Zhonghua Broomrape)
Orobanche montserratii A.Pujadas & D.Gómez García
Orobanche mulgedii Novopokr.
Orobanche multicaulis Brandegee
Orobanche mupinensis Hu (Baoxing Broomrape)
Orobanche muteliformis F.J.Y.Foley
Orobanche myrtilli H.Lév. & É.Labbé
Orobanche nikitinii Novopokr.
Orobanche nowackiana Markgr.
Orobanche obtusata Raf.
Orobanche ombrochares Hance (Maoyao Broomrape)
Orobanche orientalis Beck
Orobanche oxyloba (Reut.) Beck
Orobanche ovata Blakelock
Orobanche ozanonis Beck
Orobanche pachypoda Butkov
Orobanche pamim-alaica Gontsch. & Novopokr.
Orobanche pancicii Beck
Orobanche paralias L.Corb.
Orobanche parishii (Jeps.) Heckard
Orobanche pedunculata Vell.
Orobanche pelargonii Caldesi
Orobanche penduliflora Gilli
Orobanche perangustata M.J.Y.Foley
Orobanche petraea Vell.
Orobanche picridis F.W.Schultz (Oxtongue Broomrape)
Orobanche pinorum Geyer ex Hook.
Orobanche portoilicitana A.Pujadas & M.B.Crespo
Orobanche psila C.B.Clarke ex Hook.f.
Orobanche psilostemon Novopokr.
Orobanche pubescens d'Urv. (Hairy Broomrape)
Orobanche pulchra Gilli
Orobanche purpurea Jacq. (Yarrow Broomrape)
Orobanche pushpitoi M.R.Almeida
Orobanche pycnostachya Hance (Huanghua Broomrape)
Orobanche ramosa L. (Branched Broomrape; Hemp Broomrape)
Orobanche rapum-genistae Thuill. (Greater Broomrape)
Orobanche rechingeri Gilli
Orobanche reticulata Wallr. (Thistle Broomrape)
Orobanche rhaetica Brügger
Orobanche riparia L.T.Collins
Orobanche rosea Tzvelev
Orobanche salviae F.W.Schultz ex Koch
Orobanche sanguinea C.Presl
Orobanche santolinae Loscos & J.Pardo
Orobanche sarmatica Kotov
Orobanche schelkovnikovii Tzvelev
Orobanche schugnanica Novopokr.
Orobanche schultzii Mutel
Orobanche schweinfurthii Beck
Orobanche schwingenschussii Gilli
Orobanche scolymi Pomel
Orobanche serbica Beck & Petrovič
Orobanche serratocalyx Beck
Orobanche sideana Gilli
Orobanche sideritis Porta
Orobanche sinensis Harry Sm. (Sichuan Broomrape)
Orobanche singarensis Beck ex Hand.-Mazz.
Orobanche sintenisii Beck
Orobanche sogdiana Novopokr.
Orobanche solenanthi Novopokr. & Pissjauk.
Orobanche solmsii C.B.Clarke (Changbao Broomrape)
Orobanche sordida C.A.Mey. (Danhuang Broomrape)
Orobanche stans Noronha
Orobanche stocksii Boiss.
Orobanche subverticillata F.W.Schultz
Orobanche tacnaensis Mattf.
Orobanche tarapacana Phil.
Orobanche tetuanensis Ball
Orobanche teucrii Holandre (Germander Broomrape)
Orobanche todari Lojac.
Orobanche transcaucasica Tzvelev
Orobanche trichocalyx (Webb & Berthel.) Beck
Orobanche trotzkii Wagn. ex Claus
Orobanche tunetana Beck
Orobanche uniflora L. (Naked Broomrape; One-flower Cancer-root)
Orobanche uralensis Beck (Duochi Broomrape)
Orobanche ussuriensis Novopokr.
Orobanche valida Jeps.
Orobanche vallicola (Jeps.) Heckard
Orobanche viridis Hazsl.
Orobanche vitellina Novopokr.
Orobanche weberbaueri Mattf.
Orobanche wiedemanni Boiss.
Orobanche xanthostachya Novopokr.
Orobanche yunnanensis (Beck) Hand.-Mazz. (Dianlie Broomrape)

List Sources :[4][5]


1. ^ Beck-Mannagetta, G. (1930) Orobanchaceae. In Engler, A. (ed.) Das Pflanzenreich 4: 1-348. (Engelmann:Leipzig).
2. ^ Yoder, J.I. (2001) Host-plant recognition by parasitic Scrophulariaceae. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 4:359-365.
3. ^ Luard, E. European peasant cookery, Grub Street, 2004, p.380
4. ^ GRIN. "Species in GRIN for genus Orobanche". Taxonomy for Plants. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Retrieved October 30, 2009.
5. ^ "Plant Name Query Results for Orobanche". IPNI. Retrieved November 1, 2009.

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