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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Apiales

Familia: Araliaceae
Subfamilia: Aralioideae
Genus: Panax
Species: Panax vietnamensis

Panax vietnamensis Ha & Grushv.

Botanicheskii Zhurnal. Moscow & Leningrad [St. Petersburg] 70:519. 1985
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Panax vietnamensis in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 09-Oct-10.

Vernacular names
Tiếng Việt: sâm Ngọc Linh

Panax vietnamensis or Vietnamese ginseng[1] (Vietnamese: Sâm Ngọc Linh) is a species of the ginseng genus Panax. In Vietnam the species, prized in herbal medicine, is commercially very valuable and now considered threatened.[3][4]


Panax vietnamensis is a perennial plant, growing from 40 centimetres (16 in) to 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) tall. It may be distinguished from other ginseng species by the notches on its roots.[3]
Distribution and habitat

In Vietnam, P. vietnamensis is found primarily in the Mount Ngọc Linh area of Kon Tum and Quảng Nam provinces, from which its local name is derived.[3][4] It is also found in the Mount Ngọc Lum Heo and Mount Ngọc Am areas of Quảng Nam Province. Its habitat is areas under jungle leaf canopy or near running water, at altitudes above 1,200 metres (4,000 ft).[3] The species is also reported from central and southern provinces of China.[2]

Panax vietnamensis faces a number of threats to its survival as a species in Vietnam. With increased demand from the herbal medicine industry, locals have over-harvested the plant in the wild.[4] The species is slow-growing, taking around 10 years to reach maturity.[3] Larger-scale commercial farming operations have been affected by theft of the plants.[5] False ginseng seeds have been introduced to the Mount Ngọc Linh area in an attempt to be grown and sold as P. vietnamensis. The introduced strains mature in a much shorter time and can be grown at lower altitudes. Scientists are concerned that these strains may mix with and compromise purebred P. vietnamensis.[3]

Commercial projects

In 1979 the provincial government of Quảng Nam established the Tra Linh Drug Materials Farm in a forested area on Mount Ngọc Linh. The project, delayed for many years, has recently cultivated large numbers of Ngọc Linh ginseng plants for sale to a local pharmaceutical company. However theft of mature plants has been an ongoing threat.[4][5]

In Kon Tum province, a conservation centre was established in 2004 to grow and preserve the plant. Initially an area of 10 hectares (20 acres) has been planted. It is hoped to increase this to 500 hectares (1,236 acres) under cultivation by 2015.[6]


Panax vietnamensis is sympatric with other Panax species and has a close relationship with P. japonicus var. major and P. pseudo-ginseng subsp. himalaicus.[7]


"Panax vietnamensis". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 29 November 2014.
"Panax vietnamensis". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 29 Nov 2014.
Phong, Tien (28 Oct 2013). "Scientists fear Ngoc Linh ginseng may get exhausted". VietnamNet. Retrieved 29 Nov 2014.
Tre, Tuoi (21 Jul 2008). "Golden Treasure" (PDF). Thanh Nien News. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 29 Nov 2014 – via The Herbal Dispatch.
Tre, Tuoi (22 Jul 2008). "Ginseng guardians" (PDF). Thanh Nien News. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 29 Nov 2014 – via The Herbal Dispatch.
"Kon Tum province invests in Ngoc Linh ginseng". VietnamPlus. Vietnam News Agency. 22 Jul 2013. Retrieved 29 Nov 2014.
Komatsu, Katsuko; Zhu, Shu; Fushimi, Hirotoshi; Qui, Tran Kim; Cai, Shaoqing; Kadota, Shigetoshi (2001). "Phylogenetic Analysis Based on 18S rRNA Gene and matK gene sequences of Panax vietnamensis and five related species" (PDF). Planta Medica. 67 (5): 461–465. doi:10.1055/s-2001-15821. PMID 11488463. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-02-28.

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