Fine Art

Papaver orientale

Papaver orientale , Photo: Michael Lahanas

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Ordo: Ranunculales

Familia: Papaveraceae
Subfamilia: Papaveroideae
Tribus: Papavereae
Genus: Papaver
Sectio: P. sect. Macrantha
Species: Papaver orientale

Papaver orientale L. (1753)

Typus: grown at Chelsea. Physic Garden, London, from seed from the Caucasus region, Herb. Lindley.


Calomecon orientale (L.) Spach, Hist. Veg. Phan. vol. 7, 9 (1838).
Papaver dzeghamicum Medvyedev, Act. Hort. Tiflis 18. 15 (1915), in clavi.
Papaver orientale var. parviflora N.Busch., Fl. Cauc. Crit. 3: 4 41 (1905).
Papaver orientale var. paucifoliatum Trautv., Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 4: 346 (1876).
Papaver paucifoliatum (Trautv.) Fedde, Pflanzenr. (Engler) 4. 104(Heft 40): 366 (1909).


Papaver × pseudo-orientale E.G.Camus


Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 508. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2009. Papaver orientale. Published online. Accessed: Nov 18 2009.

Vernacular names
čeština: Mák východní
Deutsch: Türkischer Mohn
English: oriental poppy
suomi: Idänunikko
magyar: Keleti mák, díszpipacs, keleti pipacs
lietuvių: Rytinė aguona
polski: Mak wschodni
русский: Мак восточный
slovenščina: Turški mak

Papaver orientale, the Oriental poppy,[2] is a perennial flowering plant[3] native to the Caucasus, northeastern Turkey, and northern Iran.[4]

Oriental poppies grow a mound of leaves that are hairy and finely dissected in spring. They gather energy and bloom in mid-summer. After flowering the foliage dies away entirely, a property that allows their survival in the summer drought of Central Asia. Gardeners can place late-developing plants nearby to fill the developing gap.


Papaver orientale usually thrives in soil pH 6.5 to 7.5 and in full sun or part shade. Seeds are sown after the potential of frost has passed, the average temperature is approximately 21 °C and when soil has thoroughly warmed. The seeds are sown at a depth of about one centimeter, or less as light may stimulate germination. Oriental Poppies do not handle transplanting or over-watering well. Germination period is 10–20 days. Mulch can be used to protect the plant over the winter and deadheading will produce a second flower.

In addition to its natural brilliant orange-scarlet, since the later 19th century selective breeding for gardens has created a range of colors from clean white with eggplant-black blotches (Barr's White is the standard against which other whites are measured), through clear true pinks and salmon pinks to deep maroons and plum. In addition petals may be creased or fringed, such as Türkenlouis.

Cultivars (those marked agm have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit):-[5]

Name Colour
Aglaja agm[6] salmon pink
Barr's White white
Beauty of Livermere red
Black and White agm[7] white/black
Brilliant red
Carnival white/orange/red
Carousel white/orange picotee
Cedric Morris agm[8] pale pink/black
Effendi agm[9] pale orange
Fatima white/pink picotee
GI Joe red (double)
Helen Elizabeth pink
Indian Chief mahogany red
John III agm[10] orange-red
Karine agm[11] pale pink / red
Name Colour
Khedive agm[12] pale salmon / black
Leuchtfeuer agm[13] orange
Lighthouse agm[14] pale pink/maroon
Maiden's Blush white
Olympia orange
Papillon pink
Patty's Plum plum
Perry's White white
Picotee white/orange picotee
Pinnacle white/red
Royal Wedding white
Türkenlouis red
Watermelon pink

Related species

Oriental poppies are closely related to the great scarlet poppy Papaver bracteatum, which can be grown for the commercial extraction of thebaine, a common starting material for the production of semisynthetic medicinal opioids.[15]
See also

Oriental Poppies, 1927 painting by Georgia O'Keeffe

Linne, Carl von (1753). Species Plantarum. Vol. 1. Holmiae :Impensis Laurentii Salvii. p. 508.
BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
USDA Profile
"Papaver orientale". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 10 January 2018.
"AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 71. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
"RHS Plant Selector - Papaver orientale 'Ajaga'". Retrieved 16 January 2021.
"RHS Plant Selector - Papaver orientale 'Black and White'". Retrieved 16 January 2021.
"RHS Plant Selector - Papaver orientale 'Cedric Morris'". Retrieved 16 January 2021.
"RHS Plant Selector - Papaver orientale 'Effendi'". Retrieved 16 January 2021.
"RHS Plant Selector - Papaver orientale 'John III'". Retrieved 16 January 2021.
"RHS Plant Selector - Papaver orientale 'Karine'". Retrieved 16 January 2021.
"RHS Plant Selector - Papaver orientale 'Khedive'". Retrieved 16 January 2021.
"RHS Plant Selector - Papaver orientale 'Leuchtfeuer'". Retrieved 16 January 2021.
"RHS Plant Selector - Papaver orientale 'Lighthouse'". Retrieved 16 January 2021.

National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Database. Thebaine, CID=5324289, (accessed on Apr. 2, 2020)


Garden Guides: Oriental Poppy varieties

Plants, Fine Art Prints

Plants Images

Biology Encyclopedia

Retrieved from ""
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

Home - Hellenica World