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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Asteroideae
Tribus: Heliantheae
Subtribus: Ambrosiinae
Genus: Parthenium
Species: P. alpinum – P. arctium – P. argentatum – P. auriculatum – P. bipinnatifidum – P. cineraceum – P. confertum – P. densipilum – P. fruticosum – P. glomeratum – P. hispidum – P. hysterophorus – P. incanum – P. integrifolium – P. ligulatum – P. lloydii – P. lozanoanum – P. rollinsianum – P. schottii – P. tetraneuris – P. tomentosum

Parthenium L., Sp. Pl. 2: 988. (1753)

Type species: Parthenium hysterophorus L., Sp. Pl. 2: 988. (1753)


Partheniastrum Fabr., Enum. 82. (1759) nom. illeg. superfl.
Argyrochaeta Cav., Icon. 4(2): 54. (1797) nom. illeg. superfl.
Hysterophorus Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 128, 616. (1763)
Villanova Ortega, Nov. Pl. Descr. Dec. 47, f. 6. (1797) nom. rej. non Villanova Lag., Gen. Sp. Pl. [Lagasca] 31. (1816)
Bolophyta Nutt., Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., n.s. 7: 347–348. (1841)
Echetrosis Phil., Anales Univ. Chile 43: 504. (1873)


Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum 2: 988.
Nuttall, T. 1840. Descriptions of new species and genera of plants in the natural order of the Compositae, collected in a tour across the continent to the Pacific, a residence in Oregon, and a visit to the Sandwich Islands and upper California, during the years 1834 and 1835. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, held at Philadelphia, for promoting useful knowledge, n.s.[new series][ser. 2], 7: 283–453. BHL Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2018. Parthenium. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Feb. 15. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Parthenium. Published online. Accessed: Feb. 15 2018. 2018. Parthenium. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Feb. 15.

Parthenium is a genus of North American shrubs in the sunflower tribe within the daisy family and subfamily Asteroideae.[4][2][3]

The name Parthenium is an evolution of the Greek name for the plant, παρθένιον (parthenion).[5] [6] The name is possibly derived from the Greek word παρθένος (parthenos) which means "virgin".[7]

Parthenium is called Gajar Ghans and is the most common invasive species in India. Parthenium hysterophorus plant causes milk disease in livestock and also responsible for respiratory malfunction in humans.

Members of the genus are commonly known as feverfew.[8] Notable species include guayule (P. argentatum) which has been used as a rubber substitute, especially during the Second World War;[9] and also P. hysterophorus, a serious invasive species in the Old World.[10]


These include:[3]

Parthenium alpinum (Nutt.) Torr. & A.Gray – Arkansas River feverfew - NM CO WY
Parthenium argentatum A.Gray – Guayule - TX, Coahuila, Guanajuato, Nuevo León, San Luis Potosí, Zacatecas
Parthenium cineraceum Rollins - Bolivia, Paraguay
Parthenium confertum A.Gray – Gray's feverfew - AZ NM TX Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, San Luis Potosí, Querétaro, Tamaulipas
Parthenium fruticosum Less. - from Tamaulipas to Chiapas
Parthenium hysterophorus L. – Santa Maria feverfew, whitetop weed - widespread in North + South America
Parthenium incanum Kunth – mariola - NV UT AZ NM TX Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Hidalgo, Nuevo León, San Luis Potosí, Zacatecas
Parthenium integrifolium L. – American feverfew, wild quinine - from TX to MA + MN
Parthenium ligulatum (M.E. Jones) Barneby – Colorado feverfew - CO UT
Parthenium rollinsianum Rzed. - San Luis Potosí
Parthenium schottii Greenm. ex Millsp. & Chase - Yucatán
Parthenium tomentosum DC. - Oaxaca, Puebla
Congress grass

DC. - Hindi, Congress

Warning - Invasive Plant

In North America, the Jicarilla Apache people used Parthenium incanum for medicine (Opler 1946: 8). The sap of guayule (P. argentatum)


lectotype designated by N.L. Britton & A. Brown, Ill. fl. n. U.S., ed. 2. 3: 464 (1913)
Tropicos, Parthenium L.
Flann, C (ed) 2009+ Global Compositae Checklist Archived 2014-12-27 at
Linnaeus, Carl von. 1753. Species Plantarum 2: 988 in Latin
Dioscorides, Pedanius (2000). Materia Medica. Johannesburg, South Africa: Ibidis Press. p. 556.
Dioscorides, Pedanius (1829). Sprengel, Curtius (ed.). De Materia Medica. Leipzig. p. 484.
Strother, John L. "Parthenium Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 988. 1753; Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 426. 1754". Flora of North America. Retrieved 2011-08-09.
"Parthenium". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2011-08-09.
Ray, D.T. 1993. Guayule: A source of natural rubber. p. 338-343. In: J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.), New crops. Wiley, New York.

"Parthenium hysterophorus (herb)". Global Invasive Species Database. Invasive Species Specialist Group. 2010-10-04. Retrieved 2011-08-09.

Everitt, J.H.; Lonard, R.L.; Little, C.R. (2007). Weeds in South Texas and Northern Mexico. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press. ISBN 0-89672-614-2
Opler, Morris E. (1946). Childhood and youth in Jicarilla Apache society. Publications of the Frederick Webb Hodge Anniversary Fund (Vol. 5). Los Angeles: The Southwest Museum Administrator of the Fund.

Further information
Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International Invasive Species Compendium (2019-02-26). Parthenium in Malaysia. YouTube. Archived from the original on 2021-12-13.

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