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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Malpighiales

Familia: Bonnetiaceae
Genus: Ploiarium
Species: P. alternifolium – P. elegans – P. pulcherrimum – P. sessile

Ploiarium Korth., Verh. Nat. Gesch. Ned. Bezitt., Bot. 135. t. 25. 1842.
Type species: Ploiarium elegans Korth.


Korthals, P.W. (1842) Verh. Nat. Gesch. Ned. Bezitt., Bot. 135. t. 25.


Hassler, M. 2019. Ploiarium – World Ferns: Checklist of Ferns and Lycophytes of the World . In: Roskov Y., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., Nieukerken E. van, Zarucchi J. & Penev L. (eds.) 2019. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 May 07.
International Plant Names Index. 2019. Ploiarium. Published online. Accessed: May 07 2019.
The Plant List 2013. Ploiarium in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published online. Accessed: 2019 May 07. 2019. Ploiarium. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 07 May 2019.

Vernacular names

Ploiarium is a genus of three species of woody plants in the family Bonnetiaceae. It is native to tropical forests and peat swamp forests in Southeast Asia including southern Indochina, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo. Species are generally slow growing with irregular flowering and fruiting cycles. Colonization of plants by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is known to improve growth and biomass.[1]

Species of Ploiarium are used in medicine as they contain compounds that possess antimicrobial activity.[1] Several xanthones have been discovered in the stems and bark of P. elegans including: ploiarixanthone, euxanmodin A, and euxanmodin B.[2] The anthraquinones emodin, ploiariquinone A, and 1,8-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-6- methyl-anthraquinone have also been reported from the genus. Triterpenoid benzoates are also reported from the bark of P. elegans.[3] Leaf extracts contain a diverse array of terpenoids, alkaloids, polyphenols, flavonoids, steroids, and saponins and have been studied for their anti-bacterial properties, particularly against Propionibacterium, responsible for skin acne.[4]

Turjaman, M.; Tamai, Y.; Sitepu, I. R.; Santoso, E.; Osaki, M.; Tawaraya, K. (2008-03-18). "Improvement of early growth of two tropical peat-swamp forest tree species Ploiarium alternifolium and Calophyllum hosei by two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under greenhouse conditions". New Forests. 36 (1): 1–12. doi:10.1007/s11056-008-9084-9. ISSN 0169-4286. S2CID 23054316.
Bennett, Graham J.; Lee, Hiok-Huang; Lowrey, Timothy K. (January 1990). "Novel metabolites from ploiarium alternifolium: A bixanthone and two anthraquinonylxanthones". Tetrahedron Letters. 31 (5): 751–754. doi:10.1016/s0040-4039(00)94620-3. ISSN 0040-4039.
Bennett, Graham J; Harrison, Leslie J; Sia, Guat-Lee; Sim, Keng-Yeow; Connolly, Joseph D (April 1992). "Oleanane benzoates from the bark of Ploiarium alternifolium". Phytochemistry. 31 (4): 1325–1327. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(92)80283-k. ISSN 0031-9422.
Marselia, S., Wibowo, M. A., & Arreneuz, S. (2015). Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Daun Soma (Ploiarium alternifolium melch) Terhadap Propionibacterium acnes. Jurnal Kimia Khatulistiwa, 4(4).

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