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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales

Familia: Asparagaceae
Subfamilia: Nolinoideae
Tribus: Polygonateae
Genus: Polygonatum
Sectiones: P. sect. Polygonatum – P. sect. Verticillata

P. acuminatifolium – P. adnatum – P. amabile – P. angelicum – P. annamense – P. arisanense – P. autumnale – P. biflorum – P. brevistylum – P. campanulatum – P. cathcartii – P. cirrhifolium – P. costatum – P. cryptanthum – P. curvistylum – P. cyrtonema – P. falcatum – P. filipes – P. franchetii – P. geminiflorum – P. glaberrimum – P. gongshanense – P. govanianum – P. graminifolium – P. grandicaule – P. griffithii – P. hirtellum – P. hookeri – P. humile – P. inflatum – P. infundiflorum – P. involucratum – P. jinzhaiense – P. kingianum – P. lasianthum – P. latifolium – P. leiboense – P. longistylum – P. luteoverrucosum – P. macranthum – P. macropodum – P. megaphyllum – P. mengtzense – P. multiflorum – P. nervulosum – P. nodosum – P. odoratum – P. omeiense – P. oppositifolium – P. orientale – P. prattii – P. pubescens – P. punctatum – P. qinghaiense – P. robustum – P. roseum – P. sewerzowii – P. sibiricum – P. singalilense – P. sparsifolium – P. stenophyllum – P. stewartianum – P. tessellatum – P. tsinlingense – P. undulatifolium – P. urceolatum – P. velenovskyi – P. verticillatum – P. wardii – P. yunnanense – P. zanlanscianense – P. zhejiangensis

Nothospecies: P. × azegamii – P. × buschianum – P. × desoulavyi – P. × domonense – P. × hybridum – P. × krylovii – P. × pseudopolyanthemum – P. × tamaense

Polygonatum Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4: s.p. (1754).

Typus: Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce (Convallaria polygonatum L.)


Axillaria Raf., Amer. Monthly Mag. & Crit. Rev. 1: 266. 1818.
Salomonia Heist. ex Fabr., Enum.: 20. 1759, nom. rej.
Campydorum Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 64. 1866.
Codomale Raf., Autik. Bot.: 67. 1840.
Evallaria Neck., Elem. Bot. 3: 189. 1790, opus utiq. oppr.
Periballanthus Franch. & Sav., Enum. Pl. Jap. 2: 524. 1878.
Sigillum Montandon in F.Friche-Joset, Syn. Fl. Jura, ed. 2: 310. 1868.
Siphyalis Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 17. 1838.
Troxilanthes Raf., Autik. Bot.: 67. 1840.

Primary references

Miller, P. 1754. The Gardeners Dictionary. Abridged. Ed. 4, Vol. 1–3 (unpaged). John & James Rivington, London. DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.79061 Reference page.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Polygonatum in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Nov 28. Reference page.

Vernacular names
العربية: عقداء
azərbaycanca: Toyçiçəyi
башҡортса: Айыу емеше
беларуская: Купена
čeština: kokořík
dansk: Konval
Deutsch: Weißwurzen
English: Solomon's Seal
eesti: Kuutõverohi
فارسی: مهر سلیمان (سرده)
suomi: Kalliokielot
français: Sceau de Salomon, Muguet du pauvre
hornjoserbsce: Kokorička
magyar: Salamonpecsét
հայերեն: Սինդրիկ
日本語: アマドコロ属
ქართული: სვინტრი
қазақша: Қырлышөп
Limburgs: Salomonszegel (plaant)
lietuvių: Baltašaknė
Nederlands: Salomonszegel
ирон: Зынтъыры
polski: Kokoryczka
русский: Купена, Соломонова печать
slovenčina: kokorík
svenska: Ramssläktet
Türkçe: Mührüsüleyman
українська: Купина (рослина)
walon: Foye di coixheure
中文: 黄精属

Polygonatum /ˌpɒlɪˈɡɒnətəm/,[2] also known as King Solomon's-seal or Solomon's seal, is a genus of flowering plants. In the APG III classification system, it is placed in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Nolinoideae (formerly the family Ruscaceae).[3] It has also been classified in the former family Convallariaceae and, like many lilioid monocots, was formerly classified in the lily family, Liliaceae. The genus is distributed throughout the temperate Northern Hemisphere. Most of the approximately 63 species occur in Asia, with 20 endemic to China.[4]


Polygonatum comes from the ancient Greek for "many knees", referring to the multiple jointed rhizome.[5] One explanation for the derivation of the common name "Solomon's seal" is that the roots bear depressions which resemble royal seals. Another is that the cut roots resemble Hebrew characters.[6]

The fruits are red or black berries.
Polygonatum humile
Fruit of Polygonatum odoratum
Polygonatum verticillatum

As of June 2014, the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families accepts 74 species and hybrids:[1]

Polygonatum acuminatifolium Kom.
Polygonatum adnatum S.Yun Liang
Polygonatum altelobatum Hayata
Polygonatum alternicirrhosum Hand.-Mazz.
Polygonatum amabile Yatabe
Polygonatum arisanense Hayata
Polygonatum × azegamii (Ohwi) M.N.Tamura
Polygonatum biflorum (Walter) Elliott (including Polygonatum commutatum) – Solomon's seal, smooth or great Solomon's seal – Eastern and central North America
Polygonatum brevistylum Baker
Polygonatum × buschianum Tzvelev
Polygonatum cathcartii Baker
Polygonatum chingshuishanianum S.S.Ying
Polygonatum cirrhifolium (Wall.) Royle – tendril-leaf Solomon's seal – Southern China
Polygonatum cryptanthum H.Lév. & Vaniot
Polygonatum curvistylum Hua
Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua – Solomon's seal – Eastern Asia
Polygonatum × desoulavyi Kom.
Polygonatum × domonense Satake
Polygonatum falcatum A.Gray – Eastern Asia
Polygonatum filipes Merr. ex C.Jeffrey & McEwan
Polygonatum franchetii Hua
Polygonatum geminiflorum Decne.
Polygonatum glaberrimum K.Koch
Polygonatum gracile P.Y.Li
Polygonatum graminifolium Hook.
Polygonatum grandicaule Y.S.Kim
Polygonatum griffithii Baker
Polygonatum hirtellum Hand.-Mazz.
Polygonatum hirtum (including Polygonatum latifolium) (Bosc ex Poir.) Pursh
Polygonatum hookeri Baker
Polygonatum humile Fisch. ex Maxim. – dwarf Solomon's seal – Eastern Asia
Polygonatum × hybridum Brügger – garden Solomon's seal – Europe
Polygonatum inflatum Kom. – Eastern Asia
Polygonatum infundiflorum Y.S.Kim
Polygonatum involucratum (Franch. & Sav.) Maxim. – Asia
Polygonatum jinzhaiense D.C.Zhang & J.Z.Shao
Polygonatum kingianum Collett & Hemsl. – Solomon's seal – Asia
Polygonatum × krylovii (Ameljcz. & Malachova) A.L.Ebel
Polygonatum lasianthum Maxim. – Korean Solomon's seal[7] – Eastern Asia
Polygonatum leiboense S.C.Chen & D.Q.Liu
Polygonatum longipedunculatum S.Yun Liang
Polygonatum longistylum Y.Wan ex C.Z.Gao
Polygonatum macranthum (Maxim.) Koidz.
Polygonatum macropodum Turcz. – big footed Solomon's seal – Asia
Polygonatum megaphyllum P.Y.Li
Polygonatum mengtzense F.T.Wang & Tang
Polygonatum multiflorum (L.) All. – (common) Solomon's seal – Europe
Polygonatum nervulosum Baker
Polygonatum nodosum Hua
Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce – scented (or angular) Solomon's seal – Europe
Polygonatum omeiense Z.Y.Zhu
Polygonatum oppositifolium (Wall.) Royle
Polygonatum orientale Desf. – oriental Solomon's seal – Western Asia, Eastern Europe
Polygonatum prattii Baker
Polygonatum × pseudopolyanthemum Miscz. ex Grossh.
Polygonatum pubescens (Willd.) Pursh – downy/hairy Solomon's seal – Eastern North America
Polygonatum punctatum Royle ex Kunth
Polygonatum qinghaiense Z.L.Wu & Y.C.Yang
Polygonatum robustum (Korsh.) Nakai
Polygonatum roseum (Ledeb.) Kunth
Polygonatum sewerzowii Regel
Polygonatum sibiricum Redouté – Huang Jing, Siberian Solomon's seal – Eastern Asia
Polygonatum singalilense H.Hara
Polygonatum sparsifolium F.T.Wang & Tang
Polygonatum stenophyllum Maxim.
Polygonatum stewartianum Diels
Polygonatum × tamaense H.Hara
Polygonatum tessellatum F.T.Wang & Tang
Polygonatum verticillatum (L.) All. – whorled Solomon's seal – Europe
Polygonatum vietnamicum L.I.Abramova
Polygonatum wardii F.T.Wang & Tang
Polygonatum yunnanense H.Lév.
Polygonatum zanlanscianense Pamp.
Polygonatum zhejiangensis X.J.Xue & H.Yao


Several species are valued as ornamental plants, including:[8]

Polygonatum biflorum
Polygonatum hirtum
Polygonatum hookeri
Polygonatum humile
Polygonatum × hybridum
Polygonatum multiflorum
Polygonatum odoratum
Polygonatum stewartianum
Polygonatum verticillatum


Many species have long been used as food in China, such as Polygonatum sibiricum. Leaves, stems, and rhizomes are used raw or cooked and served as a side dish with meat and rice. The rhizomes of two local species are eaten with chicken's or pig's feet during festivals. The rhizomes are used to make tea or soaked in wine or liquor to flavor the beverages. They are also fried with sugar and honey to make sweet snacks. The starchy rhizomes can be dried, ground, and added to flour to supplement food staples. The rhizome of P. sibiricum is pulped, boiled, strained, and thickened with barley flour to make a sweet liquid seasoning agent called tangxi. At times, people in China have relied on P. megaphyllum as a famine food.[4]

The shoots of some Polygonatum can be boiled and used like asparagus. P. cirrifolium and P. verticillatum are used as leafy vegetables in India. The American species P. biflorum has a starchy root that was eaten like the potato and used as flour for bread.[4]

P. sibiricum is used for a tea called dungulle in Korea.[4]
Traditional medicine

This section needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. Please review the contents of the section and add the appropriate references if you can. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed.
Find sources: "Polygonatum" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (October 2015)

The traditional use of Polygonatum in the treatment of diabetes was first observed in 1930 by Hedwig Langecker. After experiments, she concluded that it was effective in fighting nutritional hyperglycemia, though not that caused by adrenaline release, probably due to its glucokinin content.[9]

P. verticillatum is used in Ayurveda as an aphrodisiac.[10] It is also used to treat pain, fever, inflammation, allergy, and weakness.[11]

An herbal remedy called rhizoma polygonati is a mix of Polygonatum species used in traditional Chinese medicine. It is supposed to strengthen various organs and enhance the qi.[4] Polygonatum is believed to be restorative to mental vitality, especially when the mind has been overworked, overstressed, or is in a state of exhaustion.[12]
See also



Search for "Polygonatum", World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, retrieved 2014-06-26
Sunset Western Garden Book. 1995. 606–607.
Chase, M. W.; Reveal, J. L. & Fay, M. F. (2009), "A subfamilial classification for the expanded asparagalean families Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceae and Xanthorrhoeaceae", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 161 (2): 132–136, doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00999.x
Wujisguleng, W., et al. (2012). Ethnobotanical review of food uses of Polygonatum (Convallariaceae) in China. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae 81(4) 239-44.
Coombes, A. J. (2012). The A to Z of Plant Names. USA: Timber Press. pp. 312.
Solomon's Seal.
English Names for Korean Native Plants (PDF). Pocheon: Korea National Arboretum. 2015. p. 582. ISBN 978-89-97450-98-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 24 December 2016 – via Korea Forest Service.
RHS A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 978-1405332965.
Source:Quer, Pío Font "Plantas Medicinales - El Dioscórides renovado". 1961/2005 Barcelona: Ediciones Península, ISBN 9788483072424
Kasmi, I., et al. (2012). Aphrodisiac properties of Polygonatum verticillatum leaf extract. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease S841-45.
Khan, H., et al. (2011). Antinociceptive activity of aerial parts of Polygonatum verticillatum: Attenuation of both peripheral and central pain mediators. Phytotherapy Research 25(7) 1024-30.
Teeguarden, Ron (1 March 2000). The Ancient Wisdom of the Chinese Tonic Herbs (1st ed.). Grand Central Publishing. p. 216. ISBN 978-0446675062.

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