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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Liliales

Familia: Smilacaceae
Genus: Smilax
Species: S. aberrans – S. aculeatissima – S. amamiana – S. amblyobasis – S. ampla – S. anceps – S. anguina – S. annulata – S. aquifolium – S. arisanensis – S. aristolochiifolia – S. aspera – S. aspericaulis – S. assumptionis – S. astrosperma – S. auriculata – S. australis – S. austrozhejiangensis – S. azorica – S. bapouensis – S. basilata – S. bauhinioides – S. bella – S. biflora – S. biltmoreana – S. binchuanensis – S. biumbellata – S. blumei – S. bockii – S. bona-nox – S. borneensis – S. bracteata – S. brasiliensis – S. californica – S. calophylla – S. cambodiana – S. campestris – S. canariensis – S. canellifolia – S. celebica – S. chapaensis – S. china – S. chinensis – S. chingii – S. cinnamomea – S. cissoides – S. cocculoides – S. cognata – S. compta – S. corbularia – S. cordato-ovata – S. cordifolia – S. coriacea – S. cristalensis – S. cuprea – S. cuspidata – S. darrisii – S. davidiana – S. densibarbata – S. discotis – S. domingensis – S. ecirrhata – S. elastica – S. elegans – S. elegantissima – S. elmeri – S. elongatoumbellata – S. emeiensis – S. erecta – S. excelsa – S. extensa – S. ferox – S. flavicaulis – S. fluminensis – S. fooningensis – S. fortunensis – S. fui – S. gagnepainii – S. gaudichaudiana – S. gigantea – S. gigantocarpa – S. glabra – S. glauca – S. glaucochina – S. glyciphylla – S. goyazana – S. gracilior – S. griffithii – S. guianensis – S. guiyangensis – S. havanensis – S. hayatae – S. hemsleyana – S. herbacea – S. hilariana – S. hirtellicaulis – S. horridiramula – S. hugeri – S. hypoglauca – S. ilicifolia – S. illinoensis – S. indosinica – S. inversa – S. irrorata – S. jamesii – S. japicanga – S. javensis – S. kaniensis – S. keyensis – S. kingii – S. klotzschii – S. korthalsii – S. kwangsiensis – S. kwangsiensis – S. kwangsiensis – S. lanceifolia – S. lappacea – S. larvata – S. lasioneura – S. laurifolia – S. lebrunii – S. leucophylla – S. ligneoriparia – S. ligustrifolia – S. loheri – S. longiflora – S. longifolia – S. lucida – S. luei – S. lunglingensis – S. lushuiensis – S. lutescens – S. luzonensis – S. macrocarpa – S. magnifolia – S. mairei – S. malipoensis – S. maritima – S. maypurensis – S. megacarpa – S. megalantha – S. melanocarpa – S. melastomifolia – S. menispermoidea – S. micrandra – S. micrantha – S. microdontus – S. microphylla – S. minarum – S. minutiflora – S. modesta – S. mollis – S. moranensis – S. munita – S. muscosa – S. myosotiflora – S. myrtillus – S. nageliana – S. nana – S. nantoensis – S. neocaledonica – S. neocyclophylla – S. nervomarginata – S. nigrescens – S. nipponica – S. nova-guineensis – S. obliquata – S. oblongata – S. oblongifolia – S. ocreata – S. odoratissima – S. officinalis – S. opaca – S. orbiculata – S. ornata – S. orthoptera – S. outanscianensis – S. ovalifolia – S. ovatolanceolata – S. pachysandroides – S. paniculata – S. papuana – S. perfoliata – S. pertenuis – S. petelotii – S. pilcomayensis – S. pilosa – S. pinfaensis – S. plurifurcata – S. poilanei – S. polyacantha – S. polyandra – S. polyantha – S. polycolea – S. populnea – S. pottingeri – S. prolifera – S. pseudochina – S. pulverulenta – S. pumila – S. purhampuy – S. purpurata – S. pygmaea – S. quadrata – S. quadrumbellata – S. quinquenervia – S. remotinervis – S. retroflexa – S. riparia – S. rotundifolia – S. roxburghiana – S. rubromarginata – S. rufescens – S. salicifolia – S. sanguinea – S. santaremensis – S. saulensis – S. schomburgkiana – S. scobinicaulis – S. sebeana – S. seisuiensis – S. septemnervia – S. setiramula – S. setosa – S. sieboldii – S. silverstonei – S. sinclairii – S. siphilitica – S. solanifolia – S. spicata – S. spinosa – S. spissa – S. spruceana – S. stans – S. stenophylla – S. subinermis – S. subpubescens – S. subsessiliflora – S. sumatrensis – S. synandra – S. talbotiana – S. tamnoides – S. tetraptera – S. timorensis – S. tomentosa – S. trachypoda – S. trinervula – S. tsinchengshanensis – S. tuberculata – S. turbans – S. utilis – S. vaginata – S. vanchingshanensis – S. velutina – S. verrucosa – S. verticalis – S. vitiensis – S. wallichii – S. walteri – S. wightii – S. williamsii – S. yunnanensis – S. zeylanica

Smilax L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1028 (1753).

Type species: Smilax aspera L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1028–1029 (1753)


Nemexia Raf., Neogenyton: 3 (1825)
Parillax Raf., Neogenyton: 3 (1825)
Aniketon Raf., Autik. Bot.: 130 (1840)
Dilax Raf., Autik. Bot.: 131 (1840)
Coprosmanthus Kunth, Abh. Königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1848: 35 (1848)
Heterosmilax Kunth, Enum. Pl. 5: 270 (1850).
Oligosmilax Seem., J. Bot. 6: 258 (1868)
Pleiosmilax Seem., J. Bot. 6: 193 (1868)
Sarsaparilla Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 713 (1891)
Pseudosmilax Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 9: 124 (1920)

Note: This is a view of Smilax s.l. including Heterosmilax
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus II: 1028. Reference page.

Additional references

Ferrufino-Acosta, L. 2010. Taxonomic revision of the genus Smilax (Smilacaceae) in Central America and the Caribbean islands. Willdenowia 40: 227–280. Reference page. DOI: 10.3372/wi.40.40208 Open access
Qi, Z., Cameron, K. M., Li, P., Zhao, Y., Chen, S., Chen, G. & Fu, C. 2013. Phylogenetics, character evolution, and distribution patterns of the greenbriers, Smilacaceae (Liliales), a near-cosmopolitan family of monocots Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 173: 535–548. DOI: 10.1111/boj.12096. Reference page. Provides molecular evidence that Smilax and Heterosmilax are synonymous.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2014. Smilax in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2014 Mar. 25. Reference page. 2013. Smilax. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2013 Sept. 16.
International Plant Names Index. 2013. Smilax. Published online. Accessed: 16 Sept. 2013.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Smilax (L.) in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 08-Apr-12.

Vernacular names
dansk: Sarsaparil
English: Sarsaparilla
suomi: Sarsaparillat
日本語: シオデ属

Smilax is a genus of about 300–350 species, found in the tropics and subtropics worldwide.[1] In China for example about 80 are found (39 of which are endemic),[2] while there are 20 in North America north of Mexico.[3][4] They are climbing flowering plants, many of which are woody and/or thorny, in the monocotyledon family Smilacaceae, native throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Common names include catbriers, greenbriers, prickly-ivys and smilaxes. Sarsaparilla (also zarzaparrilla, sarsparilla) is a name used specifically for the Jamaican S. ornata as well as a catch-all term in particular for American species. Occasionally, the non-woody species such as the smooth herbaceous greenbrier (S. herbacea) are separated as genus Nemexia; they are commonly known by the rather ambiguous name carrion flowers.

Greenbriers get their scientific name from the Greek myth of Crocus and the nymph Smilax.[5] Though this myth has numerous forms, it always centers around the unfulfilled and tragic love of a mortal man who is turned into a flower, and a woodland nymph who is transformed into a brambly vine.


On their own, Smilax plants will grow as shrubs, forming dense impenetrable thickets. They will also grow over trees and other plants up to 10 m high, their hooked thorns allowing them to hang onto and scramble over branches. The genus includes both deciduous and evergreen species. The leaves are heart shaped and vary from 4–30 cm long in different species.

Greenbrier is dioecious. However, only about one in three colonies have plants of both sexes. Plants flower in May and June with white/green clustered flowers. If pollination occurs, the plant will produce a bright red to blue-black spherical berry fruit about 5–10 mm in diameter that matures in the fall.

The genus has traditionally been considered as divided into a number of sections, but molecular phylogenetic studies reveals that these morphologically defined subdivisions are not monophyletic. Subdivision is best considered in terms of clades (A–D), corresponding to biogeography, with the main divisions being Old World (clades C, D) and New World (clade B) with the exception of S. aspera, that appears to be sister to all other species (clade A) and has a tri-continental disjunction.[6]

Section Smilax includes "woody",[a] prickly vines of temperate North America, for example cat greenbrier (S. glauca) and common greenbrier (S. rotundifolia).[7] Section Nemexia includes unarmed herbaceous plants of temperate North America, for example "carrion flowers" like the smooth herbaceous greenbrier (S. herbacea).[7] Section Heterosmilax represents a previous separate genus that was found to be embedded within Smilax, and was reduced to a section within it.[6]
List of selected species

Smilax aberrans Gagnep.
Smilax aculeatissima Conran
Smilax amblyobasis K.Krause
Smilax ampla Warb. ex K.Krause
Smilax anceps Willd.
Smilax anguina K.Krause
Smilax annulata Warb. ex K.Krause
Smilax aquifolium Ferrufino & Greuter
Smilax arisanensis Hayata
Smilax aristolochiifolia Mill. – American sarsaparilla
Smilax aspera L. – Mediterranean smilax, common smilax, rough smilax
Smilax aspericaulisWall. ex A.DC.
Smilax assumptionis A.DC.
Smilax astrosperma F.T.Wang & Tang
Smilax auriculata Walter
Smilax australis R.Br. – lawyer vine, barbwire vine, wait-a-while (Australia)
Smilax azorica H.Schaef. & P.Schönfelder
Smilax bapouensis H.Li
Smilax basilata F.T.Wang & Tang
Smilax bauhinioides Kunth
Smilax bella J.F.Macbr.
Smilax biflora Siebold ex Miq.
Smilax biltmoreana (Small) J.B.Norton ex Pennell
Smilax biumbellata T.Koyama
Smilax blumei A.DC.
Smilax bockii Warb.
Smilax bona-nox L. – saw greenbrier
Smilax borneensis A.DC.
Smilax bracteata Presl
Smilax brasiliensis Sprengel.
Smilax californica (A.DC.) A.Gray
Smilax calophylla Wall. ex A.DC.
Smilax cambodiana Gagnep.
Smilax campestris Griseb.
Smilax canariensis Willd.
Smilax canellifolia Mill.
Smilax celebica Blume
Smilax chapaensis Gagnep.
Smilax china L.
Smilax chingii F.T. Wang & Ts.Tang
Smilax cinnamomea Desf. ex A.DC.
Smilax cissoides M.Martens & Galeotti
Smilax cocculoides Warb.
Smilax cognata Kunth
Smilax compta (Killip & C.V.Morton) Ferrufino
Smilax corbularia Kunth
Smilax cordato-ovata Rich.
Smilax cordifolia Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
Smilax coriacea Spreng.
Smilax cristalensis Ferrufino & Greuter
Smilax cuprea Ferrufino & Greuter
Smilax cuspidata Duhamel
Smilax cyclophylla Warb.
Smilax darrisii H.Lév.
Smilax davidiana A.DC.
Smilax densibarbata F.T.Wang & Tang
Smilax discotis Warb.
Smilax domingensis Willd.
Smilax ecirrhata (Engelm. ex Kunth) S.Wats.
Smilax elastica Griseb.
Smilax elegans Wall.
Smilax elegantissima Gagnep.
Smilax elmeri Merr.
Smilax elongatoumbellata Hayata
Smilax emeiensis J.M.Xu
Smilax erecta Merr.
Smilax excelsa L.
Smilax extensa A.DC.
Smilax ferox Wall. ex Kunth
Smilax flavicaulis Rusby
Smilax fluminensis Steud.
Smilax fooningensis F.T.Wang & Tang
Smilax gagnepainii T.Koyama
Smilax gigantea Merr.
Smilax gigantocarpa Koord.
Smilax glabra Roxb. – chinaroot, tufuling (土茯苓)
Smilax glauca Walter – cat greenbrier, glaucous greenbrier
Smilax glaucochina Warb.
Smilax glyciphylla Sm. – sweet sarsaparilla, native sarsaparilla (Australia)
Smilax goyazana A.DC.
Smilax gracilior Ferrufino & Greuter
Smilax griffithii A.DC.
Smilax guianensis Vitman
Smilax guiyangensis C.X.Fu & C.D.Shen
Smilax havanensis Jacq.
Smilax hayatae T.Koyama
Smilax hemsleyana Craib.
Smilax herbacea L. – smooth herbaceous greenbrier, carrion flower (southern Quebec in Canada, Eastern United States)
Smilax hilariana A.DC.
Smilax horridiramula Hayata
Smilax hugeri (Small) J.B.Norton ex Pennell
Smilax hypoglauca Benth.
Smilax ilicifolia Desv. ex Ham.
Smilax illinoensis Mangaly – Illinois greenbrier
Smilax indosinica T.Koyama
Smilax inversa T.Koyama
Smilax irrorata Mart. ex Griseb.
Smilax jamesii G.Wallace
Smilax japicanga Griseb.
Smilax javensis A.DC.
Smilax kaniensis K.Krause
Smilax keyensis Warb. ex K.Krause
Smilax kingii Hook.f.
Smilax klotzschii Kunth
Smilax korthalsii A.DC.
Smilax kwangsiensis F.T.Wang & Tang
Smilax lanceifolia Roxb.
Smilax lappacea Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
Smilax larvata Griseb.
Smilax lasioneura Hook. – herbaceous greenbrier
Smilax lasseriana Steyerm.
Smilax laurifolia L.
Smilax lebrunii H.Lév.
Smilax leucophylla Blume
Smilax ligneoriparia C.X.Fu & P.Li
Smilax ligustrifolia A.DC.
Smilax loheri Merr
Smilax longifolia Rich.
Smilax lucidaMerr.
Smilax luei T.Koyama
Smilax lunglingensis F.T.Wang & Tang
Smilax lushuiensis S.C.Chen
Smilax lutescens Vell.
Smilax luzonensis Presl
Smilax macrocarpa Blume
Smilax magnifolia J.F.Macbr.
Smilax mairei Lev.
Smilax malipoensis S.C.Chen
Smilax maritima Feay ex Alph.Wood
Smilax maypurensis Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
Smilax megacarpa A.DC.
Smilax megalantha C.H.Wright
Smilax melanocarpa Ridl.
Smilax melastomifolia Sm. – hoi kuahiwi (Hawaiʻi)
Smilax menispermoidea A.DC.
Smilax microchina T.Koyama
Smilax microphylla C.H.Wright
Smilax minarum A.DC.
Smilax minutiflora A.DC.
Smilax modesta A.DC.
Smilax mollis Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
Smilax moranensis Mart. & Galeotti
Smilax munita S.C.Chen
Smilax muscosa Toledo
Smilax myosotiflora A.DC.
Smilax myrtillus A.DC.
Smilax nageliana A.DC.
Smilax nana F.T.Wang
Smilax nantoensis T.Koyama
Smilax neocaledonica Schltr
Smilax nervomarginata Hayata
Smilax nigrescens F.T.Wang & Tang
Smilax nipponica Miq.
Smilax nova-guineensis T.Koyama
Smilax obliquata Duhamel
Smilax oblongata Sw.
Smilax ocreata DC.
Smilax odoratissima Blume
Smilax officinalis Kunth
Smilax orbiculata Labill.
Smilax ornata Lem.
Smilax orthoptera A.DC.
Smilax outanscianensis Pamp.
Smilax ovalifolia Roxb.
Smilax ovatolanceolata T.Koyama
Smilax pachysandroides T.Koyama
Smilax paniculata M.Martens & Galeotti
Smilax papuana Lauterb.
Smilax perfoliata Lour.
Smilax petelotii T.Koyama
Smilax pilcomayensis Guagl. & S.Gattuso
Smilax pilosa Andreata & Leoni
Smilax pinfaensis H.Lév. & Vaniot
Smilax plurifurcata A.DC.
Smilax poilanei Gagnep.
Smilax polyacantha Wall. ex Kunth
Smilax polycolea Warb.
Smilax populnea Kunth
Smilax pottingeri Prain
Smilax pseudochina L. - false chinaroot
Smilax pulverulenta Michx.
Smilax pumila Walter
Smilax purhampuy Ruiz
Smilax purpurata G.Forst.
Smilax pygmaea Merr.
Smilax quadrata A.DC.
Smilax quadrumbellata T.Koyama
Smilax quinquenervia Vell.
Smilax remotinervis Hand.-Mazz.
Smilax retroflexa (F.T.Wang & Tang) S.C.Chen
Smilax riparia A.DC.
Smilax rotundifolia L. - common greenbrier (Eastern United States)
Smilax rubromarginata K.Krause
Smilax rufescens Griseb.
Smilax ruiziana Kunth
Smilax salicifolia Griseb.
Smilax sanguinea Posada-Ar.
Smilax santaremensis A.DC.
Smilax saulensis J.D.Mitch.
Smilax schomburgkiana Kunth
Smilax scobinicaulis C.H.Wright
Smilax sebeana Miq.
Smilax setiramula F.T.Wang & Tang
Smilax setosa Miq.
Smilax sieboldii Miq.
Smilax sinclairii T.Koyama
Smilax siphilitica Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
Smilax solanifolia A.DC.
Smilax spicata Vell.
Smilax spinosa Mill.
Smilax spissa Killip & C.V.Morton
Smilax spruceana A.DC.
Smilax stans Maxim.
Smilax stenophylla A.DC.
Smilax subinermis C.Presl
Smilax subpubescens A.DC.
Smilax subsessiliflora Poir.
Smilax synandra Gagnep.
Smilax talbotiana A.DC.
Smilax tamnoides L. - halberd-leaved greenbrier
Smilax tetraptera Schltr
Smilax timorensis A.DC.
Smilax tomentosa Kunth
Smilax trachypoda J.B.Norton
Smilax trinervula Miq.
Smilax tsinchengshanensis F.T.Wang
Smilax tuberculata C.Presl
Smilax turbans F.T.Wang & Tang
Smilax utilis C.H.Wright
Smilax vaginata Decne.
Smilax vanchingshanensis (F.T.Wang & Tang) F.T.Wang & Tang
Smilax velutina Killip & C.V.Morton
Smilax verrucosa Griseb.
Smilax verticalis Gagnep.
Smilax vitiensis (Seem.) A.DC.
Smilax wallichii Kunth
Smilax walteri Pursh.
Smilax wightii A.DC.
Smilax williamsii Merr.
Smilax yunnanensis S.C.Chen
Smilax zeylanica L.

Distribution and habitat

Pantropical, extending into adjacent temperate zones to north and south. 29 species are recognized in Central America and the Caribbean.[8]

The berry is rubbery in texture and has a large, spherical seed in the center. The fruit stays intact through winter, when birds and other animals eat them to survive. The seeds are passed unharmed in the animal's droppings. Since many Smilax colonies are single clones that have spread by rhizomes, both sexes may not be present at a site, in which case no fruit is formed.

Smilax is a very damage-tolerant plant capable of growing back from its rhizomes after being cut down or burned down by fire. This, coupled with the fact that birds and other small animals spread the seeds over large areas, makes the plants very hard to get rid of. It grows best in moist woodlands with a soil pH between 5 and 6. The seeds have the greatest chance of germinating after being exposed to a freeze.
Blue admiral (Kaniska canace) caterpillar on China smilax (S. china)

Besides their berries providing an important food for birds and other animals during the winter, greenbrier plants also provide shelter for many other animals. The thorny thickets can effectively protect small animals from larger predators who cannot enter the prickly tangle. Deer and other herbivorous mammals will eat the foliage, as will some invertebrates such as Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), which also often drink nectar from the flowers. Beetles too are known to consume leaves.[9]

Among the Lepidoptera utilizing Smilax are Hesperiidae like the water snow flat (Tagiades litigiosa), Pieridae like the small grass yellow (Eurema smilax),[10] or moths like the peculiar and sometimes flightless genus Thyrocopa. But particularly fond of greenbriers are certain Nymphalidae caterpillars, for example those of:

Faunis – faun butterflies
Kaniska canace – blue admiral (on China smilax, S. china)
Phalanta phalantha – common leopard (on S. tetragona)

Diosgenin is found in S. menispermoidea
American sarsaparilla (S. aristolochiifolia) from Köhler's Medicinal Plants

An extract from the roots of some species – most significantly Jamaican sarsaparilla (S. ornata) – is used to make the sarsaparilla drink and other root beers, as well as herbal drinks like the popular Baba Roots from Jamaica. Two species, S. domingensis and S. havanensis, are used in a traditional soda-like Cuban beverage called pru.[11] The roots may also be used in soups or stews. The young shoots can be eaten raw or cooked and are said to taste like asparagus, and the berries can be eaten both raw and cooked. Stuffed smilax pancake, or fúlíng jiābǐng (simplified Chinese: 茯苓夹饼; traditional Chinese: 茯苓夾餅), is a traditional snack from the Beijing region. S. glabra is used in Chinese herbology. It is also a key ingredient in the Chinese medical dessert guīlínggāo, which makes use of its property to set certain kinds of jelly.

The powdered roots of Jamaican sarsaparilla are known as Rad. Sarzae. Jam. in pharmacy and are used as a traditional medicine for gout in Latin American countries. Köhler's Medicinal Plants of 1887 discusses the American sarsaparilla (S. aristolochiifolia), but as early as about 1569, in his treatise devoted to syphilis, the Persian scholar Imad al-Din Mahmud ibn Mas‘ud Shirazi gave a detailed evaluation of the medical properties of chinaroot.[12]

Diosgenin, a steroidal sapogenin, is reported from S. menispermoidea.[13] Other active compounds reported from various greenbrier species are parillin (also sarsaparillin or smilacin), sarsapic acid, sarsapogenin and sarsaponin.

Due to the nectar-rich flowers, species like S. medica and S. officinalis are also useful honey plants.

The common floral decoration smilax is Asparagus asparagoides.[14][15]


Being a monocot, members of the family Smilacacea can not lay down true wood.


Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
Chen, Xinqi; Koyama, Tetsuo. "Smilax". Flora of China. Vol. 24 – via, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Holmes, Walter C. (2002). "Smilax". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). Vol. 26. New York and Oxford – via, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Raven & Zhengyi (2000), FNAEC (2002)
Mifsud (2002)
Qi et al 2013.
FNAEC (2002)
Ferrufino-Acosta 2010.
Nishida, K., L. Ferrufino-Acosta, & C.S. Chaboo. 2020. A new host plant family for Cassidinae s.l.: Calyptocephala attenuata (Spaeth, 1919) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae: Spilophorini) on Smilax (Smilacaceae) in Costa Rica. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 96(4): 263–267.
John F. Tooker; Peter F. Reagel & Lawrence M. Hanks (2002). "Nectar Sources of Day-Flying Lepidoptera of Central Illinois" (PDF).
Katz, Sandor (2012). The Art of Fermentation. Chelsea Green. pp. 162–163. ISBN 978-1-60358-286-5.
F. Speziale, 'Introduction', 9; H. Tadjbakhshi, 'Hôpitaux et médecins avicenniens en Iran à l'époque savafide', 27-28 in Fabrizio Speziale (ed.), Hospitals in Iran and India. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2012
S.Mirunalini & Shahira (2011). "Novel Effects of Diosgenin – A Plant Derived Steroid; A Review" (PDF). PhOL - PharmacologyOnLine.
"smilax". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.

smilax at


Ferrufino-Acosta, Lilian (2010). "Taxonomic revision of the genus Smilax (Smilacaceae) in Central America and the Caribbean Islands". Willdenowia. 40 (2): 227–280. doi:10.3372/wi.40.40208. ISSN 0511-9618. JSTOR 27896656. S2CID 85284808.
Qi, Zhechen; Cameron, Kenneth M.; Li, Pan; Zhao, Yunpeng; Chen, Shichao; Chen, Guangcun; Fu, Chengxin (December 2013). "Phylogenetics, character evolution, and distribution patterns of the greenbriers, Smilacaceae (Liliales), a near-cosmopolitan family of monocots". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 173 (4): 535–548. doi:10.1111/boj.12096.
Mifsud, Stephen (2002): Wild Plants of Malta & Gozo – Mediterranean Smilax. Retrieved October 2, 2008.

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