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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Liliales

Familia: Melanthiaceae
Tribus: Melanthieae

Genus: Stenanthium
Overview of species

S. densum – S. diffusum – S. gramineum – S. leimanthoides – S. occidentale – S. tennesseense – S. texanum

Stenanthium (A.Gray) Kunth, 1843, nom. cons.

Typus: S. angustifolium (Pursh) Kunth = S. gramineum
(Ker Gawl.) Morong


Veratrum subg. Stenanthium A.Gray, Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York, 4: 119. 1837.
Anepsa Raf., Fl. Tell. 2: 31. 1837, nom. rej.
Oceanoros Small, Fl. S.E. U.S.: 252. 1903.
Tracyanthus Small, Fl. S.E. U.S.: 250. 1903.

Native distribution areas:

Northern America
North-Central U.S.A.
Illinois, Missouri.
Northeastern U.S.A.
Indiana, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, West Virginia.
South-Central U.S.A.
Southeastern U.S.A.
Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, District of Columbia.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition


Farr, E. R. & Zijlstra, G. eds. (1996-) Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). 2009 Dec 23 [1].
Govaerts, R. & al. 2006. World Checklist of selected plant families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. 2010 Sept 27 [2]
Kunth 1843. Enum. 4: 189.

Vernacular names

English: Featherbells
polski: Wartołka

Stenanthium is a North American genus of flowering plants in the tribe Melanthieae of the family Melanthiaceae.

Featherbells is a common name for plants in this genus.[2]


Molecular phylogenetic studies in the 21st century have resulted in number of changes to placements within this tribe.

Three species were removed from the genus to Anticlea and two or three (depending on whether S. leimanthoides is maintained as a separate species) added from Zigadenus sensu lato, the deathcamases.[3] (See also Phylogeny of Melanthieae.) Members of Stenanthium, as currently circumscribed, may also be distinguished from other deathcamases by having a slender cylindrical bulb and the lack of sarcotesta on its brown seeds. They occur in the eastern and south-central United States.[4][3]

Species include:

Stenanthium densum (Desr.) Zomlefer & Judd – Osceola's plume - southeastern United States from Texas to Virginia
Stenanthium diffusum Wofford - Tennessee
Stenanthium gramineum (Ker Gawl.) Morong – eastern featherbells - eastern + south-central United States from eastern Texas to Florida north to Michigan and Connecticut.[5]
Stenanthium leimanthoides (A.Gray) Zomlefer & Judd – pine barren deathcamas - eastern + south-central United States from eastern Texas to Florida north to New York
Stenanthium macrum Sorrie & Weakley[6] – Gulf Coast, from Texas to Florida
Stenanthium occidentale A.Gray — western featherbells, native to the Pacific Northwest, the Klamath Mountains in northwestern California, and Western Canada.[7][8][9][10]
Stenanthium tennesseense Sorrie & Weakley[11] – southern Tennessee

Different botanists and sources recognize different numbers of distinct species. The Flora of North America and USDA recognize two: Stenanthium gramineum and Stenanthium occidentale.[12][13] Several sources recognize S. leimanthoides as a separate species.[14][15][16][17] The World Checklist of Selected Plant Families recognized three species in 2013, treating S. leimanthoides as a synonym of S. densum.[1] Plants of the World Online treats S. occidentale as a synonym of Anticlea occidentale.[18] Research by Sorrie and Weakley (2017) described two new species of Stenanthium in the southeastern United States: S. macrum and S. tennesseense.[17]
See also

Melanthiaceae genera


WCSP_Stenanthium>Search for "Stenanthium", "World Checklist of Selected Plant Families". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
"Stenanthium". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 2 December 2015.
Zomlefer, WB; WS Judd (2002). "Resurrection of Segregates of the Polyphyletic Genus Zigadenus s.l. (Liliales: Melanthiaceae) and Resulting New Combinations". Novon. 12 (2): 299–308. doi:10.2307/3392971. JSTOR 3392971.
Zomlefer, WB; NH Williams; WM Whitten; WS Judd (2001). "Generic circumscriptions and relationships in the tribe Melanthieae (Liliales, Melanthiaceae), with emphasis on Zigadenus: Evidence from ITS and TRNL-F sequence data". American Journal of Botany. Botanical Society of America. 88 (9): 1657–1669. doi:10.2307/3558411. JSTOR 3558411. PMID 21669700.
USDA Plants Profile for Stenanthium gramineum (eastern featherbells) . accessed 6.26.2017.
"Stenanthium macrum". International Plant Names Index. Retrieved 2018-10-03.
USDA Plants Profile for Stenanthium occidentale (western featherbells) . accessed 6.26.2017.
Calflora Database: Stenanthium occidentale (Western featherbells, Western stenanthium) . accessed 6.26.2017.
Jepson eFlora (TJM2) treatment of Stenanthium occidentale . accessed 6.26.2017.
UC CalPhotos gallery of Stenanthium occidentale
"Stenanthium tennesseense". International Plant Names Index. Retrieved 2018-10-03. Stenanthium treatment . accessed 6.26.2017.
USDA: Stenanthium treatment. accessed 6.26.2017.
Weldy, Troy; David Werier & Andrew Nelson (2013). "Stenanthium leimanthoides". New York Flora Atlas. Florida Center for Community Design and Research. New York Flora Association. Retrieved 2013-08-21.
Biota of North America Program 2014 county distribution maps
"Stenanthium leimanthoides". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanical Gardens Kew. Retrieved 2018-10-03.
Sorrie, Bruce A.; Weakley, Alan S. (2017). "Stenanthium leimanthoides and S. densum (Melanthiaceae) revisited, with the description of two new species". Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 11 (2): 275–286.
"Stenanthium occidentale". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanical Gardens Kew. Retrieved 2018-10-03.

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