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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales

Familia: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamilia: Amaryllidoideae
Tribus: Narcisseae
Genus: Sternbergia
Species: S. candida - S. clusiana - S. colchiciflora – – S. minoica – . pulchella - S. schubertii - S. vernalisS. lutea

Source(s) of checklist:

Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Sternbergia in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Apr 1. Reference page.


Sternbergia Waldst. & Kit., Descr. Icon. Pl. Hung. 2: 172. 1804.

Typus: Sternbergia colchiciflora Waldst. & Kit., Descr. Icon. Pl. Hung. 2: 172. 1804.


Oporanthus Herb., Appendix: 38. 1821.


Waldstein-Wartemburg, F. de P. von & Kitaibel, P. 1803–1805. Descriptiones et Icones Plantarum Rariorum Hungariae. Vol. 2. I–XXXII, 105–221, Tab. 101–200. M.A. Schmidt, Vienna [Wien]. Biblioteca Digital Reference page.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Sternbergia in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Apr 1. Reference page. 2020. Sternbergia. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Apr 1.
Farr, E.R. & Zijlstra, G. (eds.) 1996 onwards. Sternbergia in Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). Accessed: 2020 Apr 1.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Sternbergia. Published online. Accessed: Aug. 06 2018.
Global Biodiversity Information Facility. 2019. GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset. Taxon: Sternbergia.

Vernacular names

Ελληνικά, Κυπριακά: Στερνβεργία

English: winter daffodil
suomi: Pikarinarsissit

Sternbergia is a genus of Eurasian and North African plants in the Amaryllis family, subfamily Amaryllidoideae.[3][4]

The genus comprises eight recognised species that show a broad distribution throughout the Mediterranean Basin as well as central and southwestern Asia.[5][6][7][8][9]
The six stamens and style of Sternbergia lutea

Sternbergia contains a number of species of flowering bulbs which rather resemble Crocus. These plants produce golden-yellow goblet-shaped flowers borne on stalks some way above the ground that open during the autumn or early winter. The flower is composed of six stamens and a single style attached to an inferior ovary. Long, strap-like leaves may appear with the flowers or sometime after. The only two exceptions to this are S. vernalis and S. candida which flower in the spring, with S. candida producing striking white flowers.

The genus has gained notability due to the widespread use of one of its species, S. lutea, as a garden plant. This species has been found in cultivation for several hundred years, and has become naturalised in many parts of northern Europe, well beyond its natural range.

Sternbergia lutea was first described in 1601 by Clusius, who included the plants in the genus Narcissus.[10] Carl Linnaeus in 1753 regarded them as part of Amaryllis.[11] It was not until 1825 that the species was transferred to Sternbergia,[12] using the generic name coined in 1804.[3] The genus was named in honor of Count Kaspar von Sternberg.

As of April 2015, the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families recognizes eight species:[2]

Sternbergia candida B.Mathew & T.Baytop - Turkey
Sternbergia clusiana (Ker Gawl.) Ker Gawl. ex Spreng., including S. grandiflora Boiss. ex Baker, S. latifolia Boiss. & Hausskn. ex Baker, S. macrantha (J.Gay) J.Gay ex Baker, S. sparffiordiana Dinsm., S. stipitata Boiss. & Hausskn. - Aegean Islands, Middle East
Sternbergia colchiciflora Waldst. & Kit., including S. alexandrae Sosn., S. citrina (Herb.) Ker Gawl. ex Schult. & Schult.f., S. etnensis (Raf.) Guss., S. exscapa Tineo in G.Gussone - southern + southeastern Europe from Spain to Ukraine; Morocco, Algeria, Caucasus, Middle East
Sternbergia lutea (L.) Ker Gawl. ex Spreng., including S. aurantiaca Dinsm., S. sicula Tineo ex Guss, S. greuteriana Kamari & R.Artelari - southern Europe from Spain to Balkans; Middle East, Caucasus, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan; naturalized in North Africa
Sternbergia minoica Ravenna Autumn daffodil - Crete
Sternbergia pulchella Boiss. & Blanche in P.E.Boissier - Syria, Lebanon
Sternbergia schubertii Schenk - İzmir Province in western Turkey
Sternbergia vernalis (Mill.) Gorer & J.H.Harvey, including S. fischeriana (Herb.) Roem. - Middle East, Caucasus, Central Asia

formerly included[2]

Three names have been coined using the name Sternbergia but referring to species now considered better suited to other genera (Colchicum, Narcissus and Zephyranthes). We provide links to help you find appropriate information.

Sternbergia americana - Zephyranthes americana
Sternbergia caucasica - Colchicum trigynum
Sternbergia exigua - Narcissus cavanillesii


Tropicos, Sternbergia Waldst. & Kit.
WCSP (2011), World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, retrieved 2015-04-07, search for "Sternbergia"
Waldstein, Franz de Paula Adam von & Kitaibel, Pál. 1804. Descriptiones et Icones Plantarum Rariorum Hungariae 2: 172
Stevens, P.F., Angiosperm Phylogeny Website: Asparagales: Amaryllidoideae
Gage, Ewan; Wilkin, Paul; Chase, Mark W. & Hawkins, Julie (2011). "Phylogenetic systematics of Sternbergia (Amaryllidaceae) based on plastid and ITS sequence data". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 166 (2): 149–162. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2011.01138.x.
Mathew, B. (1983). A Review of the Genus Sternbergia. The Plantsman 5: 1–16.
Mathew, B. (1984). Sternbergia. In: Davis, PH, ed., Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 8: 360–364. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
Pasche E, Kerndorff, H. (2002). Die Gattung Sternbergia Waldst. & Kit.(Asparagales, Amaryllidaceae) im Vergleich, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der wiederentdeckten Sternbergia schubertii Schenk. Stapfia 80: 395–417.
Atervista Flora Italiana, genere Sternbergia
Carolus Clusius. 1601. Rariarum plantarum historia
Linnaeus, Carl von. 1753. Amaryllis. Species Plantarum 1:292-294 in Latin
Ker Gawler, John Bellenden ex Sprengel, Curt Polycarp Joachim. 1825. Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 2: 57 in Latin

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