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Polypodiaceae sp. Fossil, Photo: Michael Lahanas

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Tracheophyta
Divisio: Pteridophyta
Classis: Polypodiopsida
Ordo: Polypodiales

Familia: Polypodiaceae
Subfamiliae: Drynarioideae - Loxogrammoideae - Microsoroideae - Platycerioideae - - Polypodioideae

Overview of genera

Acrosorus – Aglaomorpha – Adenophorus – Alansmia – Archigrammitis – Arthromeris – Calymmodon – Campyloneurum – Ceradenia – Christiopteris – Chrysogrammitis – Cochlidium – Colysis – Ctenopterella – Dasygrammitis – Dendroconche – Dictymia – Drynaria – Enterosora – Galactodenia – Goniophlebium – Grammitis – Gymnogrammitis – Kaulinia – Kontumia – Lecanopteris – Lellingeria – Lemmaphyllum – Lepisorus – Lepidomicrosorium – Leptochilus (Plantae) – Leucotrichum – Loxogramme – Luisma – Melpomene – Microgramma – Micropolypodium – Microsorum – Moranopteris – Mycopteris – Neocheiropteris – Neolepisorus – Neurodium – Oreogrammitis – Niphidium – Notogrammitis – Paragramma – Paraselliguea – Pecluma – Phlebodium – Phymatopteris – Phymatosorus – Platycerium – Pleopeltis – Pleurosoriopsis – Podosorus – Polypodiopteris – Polypodium – Prosaptia – Pyrrosia – Radiogrammitis – Scleroglossum – Selliguea – Serpocaulon – Stenogrammitis – Synammia – Terpsichore – Themelium – Thylacopteris – Tomophyllum – Tricholepidium – Xiphopterella – Xiphopteris – Zygophlebia

Polypodiaceae Bercht. & J. Presl



Christenhusz, M.J.M., Zhang, X.-C. & Schneider, H. 2011. A linear sequence of extant families and genera of lycophytes and ferns. Phytotaxa 19: 7–54. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.19.1.2 Open access. Reference page
Smith, A.R., Pryer, K.M., Schuettpelz, E., Korall, P., Schneider, H. & Wolf, P.G. 2006. A classification for extant ferns. Taxon 55(3): 705–731. DOI: 10.2307/25065646 JSTOR ResearchGate PDF. Reference page.

Vernacular names
dansk: Engelsød-familien
Deutsch: Tüpfelfarngewächse
suomi: Kallioimarrekasvit
հայերեն: Բազմոտիկազգիներ
日本語: ウラボシ科
norsk: Sisselrotfamilien
polski: Paprotkowate
svenska: Stensöteväxter

Polypodiaceae is a family of ferns. In the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016 (PPG I), the family includes around 65 genera and an estimated 1,650 species and is placed in the order Polypodiales, suborder Polypodiineae.[1] A broader circumscription has also been used, in which the family includes other families kept separate in PPG I. Nearly all species are epiphytes, but some are terrestrial.[2]


Stems of Polypodiaceae range from erect to long-creeping. The fronds are entire, pinnatifid, or variously forked or pinnate. The petioles lack stipules. The scaly rhizomes are generally creeping in nature. Polypodiaceae species are found in wet climates, most commonly in rain forests. In temperate zones, most species tend to be epiphytic or epipetric.[2]

Notable examples of ferns in this family include the resurrection fern (Pleopeltis polypodioides) and the golden serpent fern (Phlebodium aureum).[2]

Two distinct circumscriptions of the family are in use. The Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016 (PPG I) uses a circumscription of Polypodiaceae in which the family is placed in the suborder Polypodiineae (eupolypods I), along with eight other families. The relationship between the families is shown in the consensus cladogram below.[1]
Polypodiineae (eupolypods I)

Polypodiineae (eupolypods I)










An alternative approach treats the suborder Polypodiineae as the family Polypodiaceae sensu lato, and reduces the families to subfamilies, so that the Polypodiaceae sensu stricto becomes the subfamily Polypodioideae.[3] The broader circumscription is used by Plants of the World Online, as of August 2019; for example, the Dryopteridaceae, shown above as a separate family, is included in its Polypodiaceae.[4] The broadly defined Polypodiaceae has been described as an "unwieldy megafamily".[5]

Molecular phylogenetic analysis has led to the division of the Polypodiaceae into six subfamilies, and to the inclusion of genera that have at various times been placed in other families, including the Drynariaceae, Grammitidaceae, Gymnogrammitidaceae, Loxogrammaceae, Platyceriaceae, and Pleurisoriopsidaceae.[1][6] The following cladogram shows a possible phylogenetic relationship between the subfamilies based on an analysis published in 2008; at the time, Grammitidoideae was not separated from Polypodioideae.[7]






Polypodioideae (including Grammitidoideae)

The subfamilies are treated as tribes in other systems. Mabberley, in 2008, treated all of Polypodiaceae except for the Platycerioideae (Platycerium and Pyrrosia) and the grammitid ferns, which he placed in Grammitidaceae, as the subfamily Polypodioideae, which he then divided into six tribes, four of which correspond to PPG I subfamilies (Drynarieae, Loxogrammeae, Microsoreae and Polypodieae) and others of which have been submerged (Selligueeae, now within Drynarioideae, and Lepisoreae, now within Microsoroideae).[8] Other systems also treat the subfamilies as tribes.[3] The equivalence is shown in the following table.

PPG I[1] Christenhusz & Chase (2014)[3]
Family Polypodiaceae J.Presl & C.Presl Subfamily Polypodioideae B.K.Nayar
     Subfamily Loxogrammoideae H.Schneid.       Tribe Loxogrammeae R.M.Tryon & A.F.Tryon
     Subfamily Platycerioideae B.K.Nayar       Tribe Platycerieae Christenh.
     Subfamily Drynarioideae Crabbe, Jermy & Mickel       Tribe Drynarieae Chandra
     Subfamily Microsoroideae B.K.Nayar       Tribe Microsoreae V.N.Tu
     Subfamily Polypodioideae Sweet       Tribe Polypodieae Hook. & Lindl. ex Duby
     Subfamily Grammitidoideae Parris & Sundue


In the list that follows, the taxa shown with the "(=)" prefix are considered to be synonyms for the accepted subfamily name that they follow. However, this does not necessarily imply that the subfamily contains all of the synonym's previous genera.[1][6]
Selliguea hastata

Subfamily Drynarioideae Crabbe, Jermy & Mickel

(=) tribe Drynarieae Subh.Chandra
(=) tribe Selligueeae (author?)[8]
(=) family Drynariaceae Ching
Combines drynarioid and selligueoid ferns

Aglaomorpha Schott
Arthromeris (T.Moore) J.Sm.
Gymnogrammitis Griff.
Paraselliguea Hovenkamp
Polypodiopteris C.F.Reed
Selliguea Bory

Grammitis billardierei

Subfamily Grammitidoideae Parris & Sundue

(includes family Grammitidaceae)

Acrosorus Copel.
Adenophorus Gaudich.
Alansmia M.Kessler, Moguel, Sundue & Labiak
Archigrammitis Parris
Ascogrammitis Sundue
Calymmodon C.Presl
Ceradenia L.E.Bishop
Chrysogrammitis Parris
Cochlidium Kaulf. (including Xiphopteris)
Ctenopterella Parris
Dasygrammitis Parris
Enterosora Baker
Galactodenia Sundue & Labiak
Grammitis Sw.
Lellingeria A.R.Sm. & R.C.Moran
Leucotrichum Labiak
Lomaphlebia J.Sm.
Luisma M.T.Murillo & A.R.Sm.
Melpomene A.R.Sm. & R.C.Moran
Micropolypodium Hayata
Moranopteris R.Y.Hirai & J.Prado
Mycopteris Sundue
Notogrammitis Parris
Oreogrammitis Copel.
Prosaptia C.Presl (incl. Ctenopteris)
Radiogrammitis Parris
Scleroglossum Alderw. (incl. Nematopteris)
Stenogrammitis Labiak
Terpsichore A.R.Sm.
Themelium (T.Moore) Parris
Tomophyllum (E.Fourn.) Parris
Xiphopterella Parris
Zygophlebia L.E.Bishop

Dictymia mckeei

Subfamily Loxogrammoideae H.Schneid.

(=) tribe Loxogrammeae R.M.Tryon & A.F.Tryon
(=) family Loxogrammaceae Ching ex Pic.Serm.
Lacks sclerenchyma (supporting tissue) in plant body, except in the roots.[8]

Dictymia J.Sm.
Loxogramme (Blume) C.Presl

Microsorum pteropus

Subfamily Microsoroideae B.K.Nayar (as "Microsorioideae")

(=) tribe Microsoreae V.N.Tu

Goniophlebium (Blume) C.Presl
Lecanopteris Reinw. ex Blume
Lemmaphyllum C.Presl
Lepidomicrosorium Ching & K.H.Shing
Lepisorus (J.Sm.) Ching
Leptochilus Kaulf. (including Kontumia)
Microsorum Link (including Dendroconche, Kaulinia)
Neocheiropteris Christ.
Neolepisorus Ching
Paragramma (Blume) T.Moore
Thylacopteris Kunze ex J.Sm.
Tricholepidium Ching

In 2019, based on a molecular phylogenetic study, Dendroconche was removed from synonymy with Microsorum and two additional genera were created, adding three genera to the subfamily:[9]

Bosmania Testo
Dendroconche Copel.
Zealandia Testo

Platycerium elephantotis

Subfamily Platycerioideae B.K.Nayar

(=) family Platyceriaceae Ching
Fronds with stellate hairs (star-shaped, radiating from center).[8]

Platycerium Desv.
Pyrrosia Mirb.

Polypodium appalachianum

Subfamily Polypodioideae Sweet

(=) tribe Polypodieae Hooker & Lindley ex Duby (sensu Mabberley 2008)

Campyloneurum C.Presl
Microgramma C.Presl
Niphidium J.Sm.
Pecluma M.G.Price.
Phlebodium (R.Br.) J.Sm.
Pleopeltis Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
Pleurosoriopsis Fomin
Polypodium L. Perhaps
Serpocaulon A.R.Sm.

Subfamily placement uncertain:

Synammia C.Presl

See also

List of foliage plant diseases (Polypodiaceae)


PPG I (2016). "A community-derived classification for extant lycophytes and ferns". Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 54 (6): 563–603. doi:10.1111/jse.12229. S2CID 39980610.
Panigrahi, G. & Patnaik, S.N. (1961). "Cytology of Some Genera of Polypodiaceae in Eastern India". Nature. 191 (4794): 1207–1208. doi:10.1038/1911207a0. S2CID 4177788.
Christenhusz, Maarten J.M. & Chase, Mark W. (2014). "Trends and concepts in fern classification". Annals of Botany. 113 (9): 571–594. doi:10.1093/aob/mct299. PMC 3936591. PMID 24532607.
"Dryopteridaceae Herter". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2019-08-02.
Sundue, Michael A.; Parris, Barbara S.; Ranker, Tom A.; Smith, Alan R.; Fujimoto, Erin L.; Zamora-Crosby, Delia; Morden, Clifford W.; Chiou, Wen-Liang; Chen, Cheng-Wei; Rouhan, Germinal; Hirai, Regina Y. & Prado, Jefferson (2014). "Global phylogeny and biogeography of grammitid ferns (Polypodiaceae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 81: 195–206. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2014.08.017. PMID 25173566.
Christenhusz, Maarten; Zhang, Xian-Chun & Schneider, Harald (2011). "A linear sequence of extant families and genera of lycophytes and ferns". Phytotaxa. 19: 7–54. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.19.1.2. Retrieved 2013-08-11.
Schuettpelz, Eric & Pryer, Kathleen M. (2008). "Fern phylogeny" (PDF). In Ranker, Tom A. & Haufler, Christopher H. (eds.). Biology and Evolution of Ferns and Lycophytes. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 2019-08-02.
Mabberley, D.J. (2008). Mabberley's plant-book: a portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses. Cambridge University Press. p. 690. ISBN 978-0-521-82071-4.
Testo, Weston L.; Field, Ashley R.; Sessa, Emily B. & Sundue, Michael (2019). "Phylogenetic and Morphological Analyses Support the Resurrection of Dendroconche and the Recognition of Two New Genera in Polypodiaceae Subfamily Microsoroideae" (PDF). Systematic Botany. 44 (4): 737–752. doi:10.1600/036364419X15650157948607. S2CID 208176686. Retrieved 2020-02-11.

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