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Cerussite out of the oxidation zone - Locality: Tsumeb, Southwest-Africa (*)

Category Carbonate mineral
Chemical formula Lead carbonate: PbCO3
Color Colorless, white, gray, blue, or green
Crystal habit Massive granular, reticulate, tabular to equant crystals
Crystal system Orthorhombic - Dipyramidal (2/m 2/m 2/m)
Twinning Simple or cyclic contact twins
Cleavage Good [110] and [021]
Fracture Brittle conchoidal
Mohs Scale hardness 3 to 3.5
Luster Adamantine, vitreous, resinous
Refractive index nα = 1.803 nβ = 2.074 nγ = 2.076
Optical Properties Biaxial (-)
Birefringence δ = 0.273
Streak White
Specific gravity 6.53 - 6.57
Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent
Other Characteristics May fluoresce yellow under LW UV
References [1][2]

Cerussite (also known as lead carbonate or white lead ore) is a mineral consisting of lead carbonate (PbCO3), and an important ore of lead. The name is from the Latin cerussa, white lead. Basic lead carbonate was first prepared by the Arabian alchemist, Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber), in the 8th century.[3] Cerussa nativa was mentioned by Conrad Gessner in 1565, and in 1832 F. S. Beudant applied the name cruse to the mineral, whilst the present form, cerussite, is due to W. Haidinger (1845). Miners' names in early use were lead-spar and white-lead-ore.

Cerussite crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and is isomorphous with aragonite. Like aragonite it is very frequently twinned, the compound crystals being pseudo-hexagonal in form. Three crystals are usually twinned together on two faces of the prism, producing six-rayed stellate groups with the individual crystals intercrossing at angles of nearly 60°. Crystals are of frequent occurrence and they usually have very bright and smooth faces. The mineral also occurs in compact granular masses, and sometimes in fibrous forms. The mineral is usually colorless or white, sometimes grey or greenish in tint and varies from transparent to translucent with an adamantine lustre. It is very brittle, and has a conchoidal fracture. It has a Mohs hardness of 3 to 3.75 and a specific gravity of 6.5. A variety containing 7 % of zinc carbonate, replacing lead carbonate, is known as iglesiasite, from Iglesias in Sardinia, where it is found.

The mineral may be readily recognized by its characteristic twinning, in conjunction with the adamantine lustre and high specific gravity. It dissolves with effervescence in dilute nitric acid. A blowpipe test will cause it to fuse very readily, and gives indications for lead.

Finely crystallized specimens have been obtained from the Friedrichssegen mine in Lahnstein near Nassau, Johanngeorgenstadt in Saxony, Mies in Bohemia, Phoenixville in Pennsylvania, Broken Hill, New South Wales; and several other localities. Delicate acicular crystals of considerable length were found long ago in the Pentire Glaze mine near St Minver in Cornwall. It is often found in considerable quantities, and contains as much as 77.5% of lead.

Lead(II) carbonate is practically insoluble in neutral water (solubility product [Pb2+][CO32-] ≈ 1.5x10-13 at 25 °C), but will dissolve in dilute acids.

Commercial uses

"White lead" is the key ingredient in (now discontinued) lead paints. Ingestion of lead-based paint chips is the most common cause of lead poisoning in children.[4]

Both "white lead" and lead acetate have been used in cosmetics throughout history, though this practice has ceased in Western countries.[5]

See also

* Venetian Ceruse - Cerussite based cosmetic worn by Elizabeth I of England.


1. ^ http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/cerussite.pdf Handbook of Mineralogy
2. ^ http://www.mindat.org/min-934.html Mindat
3. ^ Sarton, George, Introduction to the History of Science (cf. Dr. A. Zahoor and Dr. Z. Haq (1997), Quotations From Famous Historians of Science)
4. ^ Lightening the Lead Load in Children as cited in Lead Poisoning in Children, and California Poison Control System: Lead Poisoning
5. ^ Gunn, Fenja. (1973). The Artificial Face: A History of Cosmetics. — as cited in Leisure Activities of an 18th Century Lady and Reading Our Lips: The History of Lipstick Regulation in Western Seats of Power

* Mineral galleries
* This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

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