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Paul Painlevé (French pronunciation: [pɔl pɛ̃ləve]; 5 December 1863 – 29 October 1933) was a French mathematician and politician. He served twice as Prime Minister of the Third Republic: 12 September – 13 November 1917 and 17 April – 22 November 1925.


Early life

Painlevé was born in Paris.[1]

Brought up within a family of skilled artisans (his father was a draughtsman) Painlevé showed early promise across the range of elementary studies and was initially attracted by either an engineering or political career. However, he finally entered the École Normale Supérieure in 1883 to study mathematics, receiving his doctorate in 1887 following a period of study at Göttingen, Germany with Felix Klein and Hermann Amandus Schwarz. Intending an academic career he became professor at Université de Lille, returning to Paris in 1892 to teach at the Sorbonne, École Polytechnique and later at the Collège de France and the École Normale Supérieure. He was elected a member of the Académie des Sciences in 1900.[1]

He married Marguerite Petit de Villeneuve in 1901. Marguerite died during the birth of their son Jean Painlevé in the following year.[1]

Painlevé's mathematical work on differential equations led him to encounter their application to the theory of flight and, as ever, his broad interest in engineering topics fostered an enthusiasm for the emerging field of aviation. In 1908, he became Wilbur Wright's first airplane passenger in France and in 1909 created the first university course in aeronautics.[1]

Mathematical work

Some differential equations can be solved using elementary algebraic operations that involve the trigonometric and exponential functions (sometimes called elementary functions). Many interesting special functions arise as solutions of linear second order ordinary differential equations. Around the turn of the century, Painlevé, É. Picard, and B. Gambier showed that of the class of nonlinear second order ordinary differential equations with polynomial coefficients, those that possess a certain desirable technical property, shared by the linear equations (nowadays commonly referred to as the 'Painlevé property') can always be transformed into one of fifty canonical forms. Of these fifty equations, just six require 'new' transcendental functions for their solution.[2] These new transcendental functions, solving the remaining six equations, are called the Painlevé transcendents, and interest in them has revived recently due to their appearance in modern geometry and statistical mechanics.[3][4][5]

In the nineteen twenties, Painlevé briefly turned his attention to the new theory of gravitation, general relativity, which had recently been introduced by Albert Einstein. In 1921, Painlevé proposed the Gullstrand-Painlevé coordinates for the Schwarzschild metric. The modification in the coordinate system was the first to reveal clearly that the Schwarzschild radius is a mere coordinate singularity (with however, profound global significance: it represents the event horizon of a black hole). This essential point was not generally appreciated by physicists until around 1963.[citation needed] In his diary, Harry Graf Kessler recorded that during a later visit to Berlin, Painlevé discussed pacifist international politics with Einstein, but there is no reference to discussions concerning the significance of the Schwarzschild radius.[6]

First period as French Prime Minister

Painlevé took his aviation interests, along with those in naval and military matters, with him when he became, in 1906, Deputy for Paris's 5th arrondissement, the so-called Latin Quarter. By 1910, he had vacated his academic posts and World War I led to his active participation in military committees, joining Aristide Briand's cabinet in 1915 as Minister for Public Instruction and Inventions.[1]

On his appointment as War Minister in March 1917 he was immediately called upon to give his approval, albeit with some misgivings, to Robert Georges Nivelle's wildly optimistic plans for a breakthrough offensive in Champagne. Painlevé reacted to the disastrous public failure of the plan by dismissing Nivelle and controversially replacing him with Henri Philippe Pétain.[7]

On 7 September 1917, Prime Minister Alexandre Ribot lost the support of the Socialists and Painlevé was called upon to form a new government.[1]

Painlevé was a leading voice at the Rapallo conference that led to establishment of the Supreme Allied Council, a consultative body of allied powers that anticipated the unified Allied command finally established in the following year. He appointed Ferdinand Foch as French representative knowing that he was the natural Allied commander. On Painlevé's return to Paris he was defeated and resigned on 13 November 1917 to be succeeded by Georges Clemenceau. Foch was finally made commander in chief of all Allied armies on the Western and Italian fronts in May 1918.[1][7]

Second period as French Prime Minister

Painlevé then played little active role in politics until the election of November 1919 when he emerged as a leftist critic of the right-wing Bloc National. By the time the next election approached in May 1924 his collaboration with Édouard Herriot, a fellow member of Briand's 1915 cabinet, had led to the formation of the Cartel des Gauches. Winning the election, Herriot became Prime Minister in June, while Painlevé became President of the Chamber of Deputies. Though Painlevé ran for President of France in 1924 he was defeated by Gaston Doumergue. Herriot's administration publicly recognised the Soviet Union, accepted the Dawes Plan and agreed to evacuate the Ruhr. However, a financial crisis arose from the ensuing devaluation of the franc and in April 1925, Herriot fell and Painlevé became Prime Minister for a second time on 17 April. Unfortunately, he was unable to offer convincing remedies for the financial problems and was forced to resign on 21 November.[1][7][8]

Later political career

Following Painlevé's resignation, Briand formed a new government with Painlevé as Minister for War. Though Briand was defeated by Raymond Poincaré in 1926, Painlevé continued in office. Poincaré stabilised the franc with a return to the gold standard, but ultimately acceded power to Briand.[1] During his tenure as Minister of War, Painlevé was instrumental in the creation of the Maginot Line. This line of military fortifications along France's Eastern border was largely designed by Painlevé, yet named for André Maginot, owing to Maginot's championing of public support and funding.[citation needed] Painlevé remained in office as Minister for War until July 1929.[1]

Though he was proposed for President of France in 1932, Painlevé withdrew before the election. He became Minister of Air later that year, making proposals for an international treaty to ban the manufacture of bomber aircraft and to establish an international air force to enforce global peace. On the fall of the government in January 1933, his political career ended.[1]

He died in Paris in October of the same year.[7]

Painlevé is now buried at the Panthéon.


* The aircraft carrier Painlevé was named in his honour.
* The asteroid 953 Painleva was named in his honour.

Composition of governments

Painlevé's First Government, 12 September – 16 November 1917

* Paul Painlevé - President of the Council and Minister of War
* Alexandre Ribot - Minister of Foreign Affairs
* Louis Loucheur - Minister of Armaments and War Manufacturing
* Théodore Steeg - Minister of the Interior
* Louis Lucien Klotz - Minister of Finance
* André Renard - Minister of Labour and Social Security Provisions
* Raoul Péret - Minister of Justice
* Charles Chaumet - Minister of Marine
* Charles Daniel-Vincent - Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts
* Fernand David - Minister of Agriculture
* Maurice Long - Minister of General Supply
* René Besnard - Minister of Colonies
* Albert Claveille - Minister of Public Works and Transport
* Étienne Clémentel - Minister of Commerce, Industry, Posts, and Telegraphs
* Louis Barthou - Minister of State
* Léon Bourgeois - Minister of State
* Paul Doumer - Minister of State
* Jean Dupuy - Minister of State


* 27 September 1917 - Henry Franklin-Bouillon entered the ministry as Minister of State.
* 23 October 1917 - Louis Barthou succeeded Ribot as Minister of Foreign Affairs

Painlevé's Second Ministry, 17 April – 29 October 1925

* Paul Painlevé - President of the Council and Minister of War
* Aristide Briand - Minister of Foreign Affairs
* Abraham Schrameck - Minister of the Interior
* Joseph Caillaux - Minister of Finance
* Antoine Durafour - Minister of Labour, Hygiene, Welfare Work, and Social Security Provisions
* Théodore Steeg - Minister of Justice
* Émile Borel - Minister of Marine
* Anatole de Monzie - Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts.
* Louis Antériou - Minister of Pensions
* Jean Durand - Minister of Agriculture
* Orly André-Hesse - Minister of Colonies
* Pierre Laval - Minister of Public Works
* Charles Chaumet - Minister of Commerce and Industry


* 11 October 1925 - Anatole de Monzie succeeded Steeg as Minister of Justice. Yvon Delbos succeeded Monzie as Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts.

Painlevé's Third Ministry, 29 October – 28 November 1925

* Paul Painlevé - President of the Council and Minister of Finance
* Aristide Briand - Minister of Foreign Affairs
* Édouard Daladier - Minister of War
* Abraham Schrameck - Minister of the Interior
* Georges Bonnet - Minister of Budget
* Antoine Durafour - Minister of Labour, Hygiene, Welfare Work, and Social Security Provisions
* Camille Chautemps - Minister of Justice
* Émile Borel - Minister of Marine
* Yvon Delbos - Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts
* Louis Antériou - Minister of Pensions
* Jean Durand - Minister of Agriculture
* Léon Perrier - Minister of Colonies
* Anatole de Monazie - Minister of Public Works
* Charles Daniel-Vincent - Minister of Commerce and Industry

Sources and references

See also

* List of people on the cover of Time Magazine: 1920s


1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k O'Connor et al.
2. ^ Painlevé (1897)
3. ^ Wu, T. T.; B. M. McCoy, C. A. Tracy and E. Barouch (1976). "Spin-spin correlation functions for the two-dimensional Ising model: Exact theory in the scaling region". Phys.. B 13: 316–374. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.13.316.
4. ^ Jimbo, Michio; Tetsuji Miwa, Yasuko Môri and Mikio Sato (04 1980). "Density matrix of an impenetrable Bose gas and the fifth Painlevé transcendent". Physica. D (Elsevier B.V) 1 (1): 80–158. doi:10.1016/0167-2789(80)90006-8.
5. ^ Tracy, C. A.; H. Widom (1997). "On Exact Solutions to the Cylindrical Poisson-Boltzmann Equation with Applications to Polyelectrolytes". Physica. A 244: 402–413. doi:10.1016/S0378-4371(97)00229-X.
6. ^ Harry Graf Kessler. "Berlin. 20. Februar 1925. Freitag [Diary entry for Berlin 1925-02-25]". Projekt Gutenberg.
7. ^ a b c d [Anon.] (2001a)
8. ^ [Anon.] (2001b)


* [Anon.] (2001a) "Painlevé, Paul" Encyclopædia Britannica, Deluxe Edition CD-ROM
* [Anon.] (2001b) "Herriot, Édouard" Ibid
* O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Paul Painlevé", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews, .
* Painlevé, P. (1897). Lecons, sur la theorie analytique des equations differentielles, professees a Stockholm.... Paris: Libraire Scientifique à Hermann. , available at The Cornell Library Historical Mathematics Monographs

External links

* Paul Painlevé at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
* Biography (French)

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