Kaonium is an exotic atom consisting of a bound state of a positively charged and a negatively charged kaon. Kaonium has not been observed experimentally and is expected to have a short lifetime on the order of 10−18 seconds.[1][2]


Deloff, A. (2003). Fundamentals in Hadronic Atom Theory. World Scientific. Section 10.3. ISBN 981-238-371-9.
Krewald, S.; Lemmer, R. H.; Sassen, F. P. (2004). "Lifetime of kaonium". Physical Review D 69 (1): 016003. arXiv:hep-ph/0307288. Bibcode:2004PhRvD..69a6003K. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.69.016003.

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