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# Timeline of black hole physics

Timeline of black hole physics

1640 — Ismaël Bullialdus suggests an inverse-square gravitational force law

1676 — Ole Rømer proves that light has a finite speed

1684 — Isaac Newton writes down his inverse-square Law of universal gravitation

1758 — Rudjer Josip Boscovich develops his Theory of forces, where gravity can be repulsive on small distances. So according to him strange classical bodies, such as white holes, can exist, which won't allow other bodies to reach their surfaces

1784 — John Michell discusses classical bodies which have escape velocities greater than the speed of light

1795 — Pierre Laplace discusses classical bodies which have escape velocities greater than the speed of light

1798 — Henry Cavendish measures the gravitational constant G

1876 — William Kingdon Clifford suggests that the motion of matter may be due to changes in the geometry of space

1909 — Albert Einstein, together with Marcel Grossmann, starts to develop a theory which would bind metric tensor gik, which defines a space geometry, with a source of gravity, that is with mass

1910 — Hans Reissner and Gunnar Nordström defines Reissner-Nordström singularity, Hermann Weyl solves special case for a point-body source

1916 — Karl Schwarzschild solves the Einstein vacuum field equations for uncharged spherically-symmetric non-rotating systems

1917 — Paul Ehrenfest gives conditional principle a three-dimensional space

1918 — Hans Reissner and Gunnar Nordström solve the Einstein–Maxwell field equations for charged spherically-symmetric non-rotating systems

1918 — Friedrich Kottler gets Schwarzschild solution without Einstein vacuum field equations

1923 — George David Birkhoff proves that the Schwarzschild spacetime geometry is the unique spherically symmetric solution of the Einstein vacuum field equations

1931 — Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar calculates, using special relativity, that a non-rotating body of electron-degenerate matter above a certain limiting mass (at 1.4 solar masses) has no stable solutions.

1939 — Robert Oppenheimer and Hartland Snyder calculate the gravitational collapse of a pressure-free homogeneous fluid sphere

1958 — David Finkelstein theorises that the Schwarzschild radius of a black holes is a causality barrier: an event horizon

1963 — Roy Kerr solves the Einstein vacuum field equations for uncharged symmetric rotating systems, deriving the Kerr metric

1964 — Roger Penrose proves that an imploding star will necessarily produce a singularity once it has formed an event horizon

1964 — The first recorded use of the term 'Black Hole' by a journalist Ann Ewing

1965 — Ezra T. Newman, E. Couch, K. Chinnapared, A. Exton, A. Prakash, and Robert Torrence solve the Einstein-Maxwell field equations for charged rotating systems

1967 — Werner Israel presented the proof of the no-hair theorem at King's College London

1967 — John Wheeler helps to popularize the term "black hole"

1968 — Brandon Carter uses Hamilton–Jacobi theory to derive first-order equations of motion for a charged particle moving in the external fields of a Kerr-Newman black hole

1969 — Roger Penrose discusses the Penrose process for the extraction of the spin energy from a Kerr black hole

1969 — Roger Penrose proposes the cosmic censorship hypothesis

1971 — Identification of Cygnus X-1/HDE 226868 as a binary black hole candidate system

1972 — Stephen Hawking proves that the area of a classical black hole's event horizon cannot decrease

1972 — James Bardeen, Brandon Carter, and Stephen Hawking propose four laws of black hole mechanics in analogy with the laws of thermodynamics

1972 — Jacob Bekenstein suggests that black holes have an entropy proportional to their surface area due to information loss effects

1974 — Stephen Hawking applies quantum field theory to black hole spacetimes and shows that black holes will radiate particles with a black-body spectrum which can cause black hole evaporation

1989 — Identification of GS2023+338/V404 Cygni as a binary black hole candidate system

2002 — Astronomers at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics present evidence for the hypothesis that Sagittarius A* is a supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way galaxy

2002 — NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory identifies double galactic black holes system in merging galaxies NGC 6240

2004 — Further observations by a team from UCLA present even stronger evidence supporting Sagittarius A* as a black hole.

2012 — First visual proof of existence of black-holes. Suvi Gezari's team in Johns Hopkins University, using the Hawaiian telescope Pan-STARRS 1, publish images of a supermassive black hole 2.7 million light-years away swallowing a red giant.[1]

References

[1] Scientific American - Big Gulp: Flaring Galaxy Marks the Messy Demise of a Star in a Supermassive Black Hole

See also

Timeline of gravitational physics and relativity

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