Advances in the knowledge of the laws of nature consisting either of experimental discoveries or theoretical proposals that were confirmed experimentally. 250 BCE Archimedes' principle: Archimedes
1514 Heliocentrism: Nicholas Copernicus
1589 Galileo's Leaning Tower of Pisa experiment: Galileo Galilei
1600 Earth's magnetic field discovered : William Gilbert
1613 Inertia: Galileo Galilei
1621 Snell's law: Willebrord Snellius
1660 Pascal's Principle: Blaise Pascal
1660 Hooke's law: Robert Hooke
1687 Laws of motion and law of gravity: Newton
1782 Conservation of matter: Lavoisier
1785 Inverse square law for electric charges confirmed: Coulomb
1801 Wave theory of light: Young
1803 Atomic theory of matter: Dalton
1806 Kinetic energy: Young
1814 Wave theory of light, interference: Fresnel
1820 Evidence for electromagnetic interactions: Ampère, Biot, Savart
1824 Ideal gas cycle analysis, internal combustion engine: Sadi Carnot
1827 Electrical resistance, etc.: Ohm
1838 Lines of force, fields: Michael Faraday
1838 Earth's magnetic field: Weber
1842–3 Conservation of energy: Mayer, Kelvin
1842 Doppler effect: Kelvin
1845 Faraday rotation (light and electromagnetic): Faraday
1847 Conservation of energy 2: Joule, Helmholtz
1850–1 Second law of thermodynamics: Clausius, Kelvin
1857–9 Kinetic theory: Clausius, Maxwell
1861 Black body: Kirchhoff
1863 Entropy: Clausius
1864 Dynamical theory of the electromagnetic field: Maxwell
1867 Dynamic theory of gases, Maxwell
1871–89 Statistical mechanics: Boltzmann, Gibbs
1884 Boltzmann derives Stefan's radiation law
1887 Electromagnetic waves: Hertz
1893 Radiation law: Wien
1895 X-rays: Röntgen
1896 Radioactivity: Becquerel
1897 Electron: Thomson
1900 Formula for Black body radiation: Planck
1905 Special relativity: Einstein
Photoelectric effect: Einstein
Brownian motion: Einstein
1911 Equivalence principle
Discovery of the atomic nucleus: Rutherford
Superconductivity: Kamerlingh Onnes
1913 Bohr model of the atom: Bohr
1916 General relativity: Einstein
1922 Friedmann proposes expanding universe
1923 Stern–Gerlach experiment
Matter waves
Particle nature of photons confirmed
1925 Stellar structure understood
1927 Big Bang: Lemaître
1928 Antimatter predicted: Dirac
1929 Expansion of universe confirmed: Hubble
1932 Antimatter discovered: Anderson
Neutron discovered: Chadwick
1937 Muon discovered: Anderson & Neddermeyer
1938 Superfluidity discovered
Nuclear fission discovered
1947 Pion discovered
1948 Theory of Quantum electrodynamics
1956 Electron neutrino discovered
1956–7 Parity violation discovered
1957 Theory of Superconductivity
1962 Theory of strong interactions
Muon neutrino discovered
1967 Theory of Weak interaction
Pulsars discovered
1974 Charmed quark discovered
1975 Tau lepton discovered
1977 Bottom quark discovered
1980 Quantum Hall effect discovered
1981 Theory of cosmic inflation
Fractional quantum Hall effect discovered
1995 Top quark discovered
1998 Accelerating universe discovered
2000 Tau neutrino discovered
2012 Higgs Boson discovered
See also Alain Connes official website with downloadable papers.
Alain Connes's Standard Model.
A History of Quantum Mechanics
A Brief History of Quantum Mechanics

Timeline of developments in theoretical physics


American Physical Society

V.V. Ezhela; et al. (1996). Particle Physics: One Hundred Years of Discoveries: An Annotated Chronological Bibliography. Springer–Verlag. ISBN 1-56396-642-5.

Physics Encyclopedia

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