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# Timeline of states of matter and phase transitions

Alain Connes official website with downloadable papers.

Alain Connes's Standard Model.

A History of Quantum Mechanics

A Brief History of Quantum Mechanics

Timeline of states of matter and phase transitions 1896 - Charles Wilson discovers that energetic particles produce droplet tracks in supersaturated gases

1897-1901 - Discovery of the Townsend discharge by John Sealy Townsend

1908 - Hans Geiger and Ernest Rutherford use the Townsend discharge principle to detect alpha particles.

1911 - Charles Wilson finishes a sophisticated cloud chamber

1928 - Hans Geiger and Walther Muller invent the Geiger Muller tube, which is based upon the gas ionisation principle used by Geiger in 1908, but is a practical device that can also detect beta and gamma radiation. This is implicitly also the invention of the Geiger Muller counter.

1934 - Ernest Lawrence and Stan Livingston invent the cyclotron

1945 - Edwin McMillan devises a synchrotron

1952 - Donald Glaser develops the bubble chamber

1968 - Georges Charpak and Roger Bouclier build the first multiwire proportional mode particle detection chamber

1895 – Pierre Curie discovers that induced magnetization is proportional to magnetic field strength

1911 – Heike Kamerlingh Onnes discloses his research on superconductivity

1912 – Peter Debye derives the T-cubed law for the low temperature heat capacity of a nonmetallic solid

1925 – Ernst Ising presents the solution to the one-dimensional Ising model

1928 – Felix Bloch applies quantum mechanics to electrons in crystal lattices, establishing the quantum theory of solids

1929 – Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac and Werner Karl Heisenberg develop the quantum theory of ferromagnetism

1932 – Louis Eugène Félix Néel discovers antiferromagnetism

1933 – Walther Meissner and Robert Ochsenfeld discover perfect superconducting diamagnetism

1933–1937 – Lev Davidovich Landau develops the Landau theory of phase transitions

1937 – Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa and John Frank Allen discover superfluidity

1941 – Lev Davidovich Landau explains superfluidity

1942 – Hannes Alfvén predicts magnetohydrodynamic waves in plasmas

1944 – Lars Onsager publishes the exact solution to the two-dimensional Ising model

1957 – John Bardeen, Leon Cooper, and Robert Schrieffer develop the BCS theory of superconductivity

End of the 50s – Lev Davidovich Landau develops the theory of Fermi liquid

1959 – Philip Warren Anderson predicts localization in disordered systems

1972 – Douglas Osheroff, Robert C. Richardson, and David Lee discover that helium-3 can become a superfluid

1974 – Kenneth G. Wilson develops the renormalization group technique for treating phase transitions

1980 – Klaus von Klitzing discovers the quantum Hall effect

1982 – Horst L. Stoermer and Daniel C. Tsui discover the fractional quantum Hall effect

1983 – Robert B. Laughlin explains the fractional quantum Hall effect

1987 – Karl Alexander Müller and Georg Bednorz discover high critical temperature ceramic superconductors

V.V. Ezhela; et al. (1996). Particle Physics: One Hundred Years of Discoveries: An Annotated Chronological Bibliography. Springer–Verlag. ISBN 1-56396-642-5.

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