QBD is the term applied to the chargetobreakdown measurement of a semiconductor device. It is a standard destructive test method used to determine the quality of gate oxides in MOS devices. It is equal to the total accumulated charge passing through the dielectric layer just before failure. Thus QBD is a measure of timedependent gate oxide breakdown. As a measure of oxide quality, QBD can also be a useful predictor of product reliability under specified electrical stress conditions. Test method Voltage is applied to the MOS structure to force a controlled current through the oxide, i.e. to inject a controlled amount of charge into the dielectric layer. By measuring the time after which the measured voltage drops towards zero (when electrical breakdown occurs) and integrating the injected current over time, the charge needed to break the gate oxide is determined. This gate charge integral is defined as: Q_{bd }= Integral from 0 to t_{bd } (i(t)dt) where tbd is the measurement time at the step just prior to destructive avalanche breakdown. Variants There are five common variants of the QBD test method: Linear voltage ramp (Vramp test procedure) For the Vramp test procedure, the measured current is integrated to obtain QBD. The measured current is also used as a detection criterion for terminating the voltage ramp. One of the defined criteria is the change of logarithmic current slope between successive voltage steps. Analysis The cumulative distribution of measured QBD is commonly analysed using a Weibull chart. Standards JEDEC Standard JESD35A – Procedure for the WaferLevel Testing of Thin Dielectrics, April 2001
^ Dumin, Nels A., Transformation of ChargetoBreakdown Obtained from Ramped Current Stresses Into ChargetoBreakdown and TimetoBreakdown Domains for Constant Current Stress, [1]
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