Mattox, K.R. & Stewart, K.D. (1984) "Classification of the green algae: A concept based on comparative cytology". Pages 29-72 in D.E.G. Irvine & D.M. John, eds., Systematics of the Green Algae, Systematics Association Special Volume 27 (London & Orlando: Academic Press).
John O. Corliss (1984) From The kingdom Protista and its 45 phyla
In Kingdom Protista, Assemblage "Chlorobionts"
The Charophyta are a division of green algae, including the closest relatives of the embryophyte plants. In some groups, such as conjugating green algae, flagellate cells do not occur. The latter group does engage in sexual reproduction, and motility does not involve flagella, since they are totally lacking. Flagellate cells in the form of sperm are found in stoneworts (Charales) and Coleochaetales.
Because they exclude the embryophytes, the Charophyta make a paraphyletic group (although the division Charophyta is occasionally restricted to simply the Charales or stoneworts, which are monophyletic). The Charophyta plus the embryophytes make up the Streptophyta, which is a monophyletic group.
List of species. Chara aspera Deth. ex Wild. var. aspera Ireland: Counties Down, Antrim and Londonderry.
^ Lewis, Louise A.; Richard M. McCourt (2004). "Green algae and the origin of land plants" (abstract). American Journal of Botany 91 (10): 1535–1556. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1535.
Source: Wikipedia, Wikispecies: All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License