Abronia fragrans

Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Magnoliophyta
Classis: Magnoliopsida
Ordo: Caryophyllales
Familia: Nyctaginaceae
Genus: Abronia
Species: Abronia fragrans

Name

Abronia fragrans Nutt. ex Hook.

Vernacular names
English: Sweet Sand Verbena

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Abronia fragrans (sweet sand-verbena, snowball sand-verbena, prairie snowball, fragrant verbena)[2][1] is a species of sand verbena.


Description

Sweet sand-verbena is an herbaceous perennial with an upright or sprawling growth habit, reaching 8-40 inches (about 20-102cm).[2] It grows from a taproot with sticky, hairy stems growing from 7.1 inches to 3.3 feet (18-100cm) long. The flowers consist of 4 to 5 petaloid sepals and sepaloid bracts with a tubular corolla borne in clusters of 25 to 80 at the ends of stems. The blossoms are usually white but may be green-, lavender-, or pink-tinged. The sticky leaves are simple and opposite, up to 3.5" (8.89cm) long and 1.2" (3cm) wide, and elliptical or linear. The fruits are egg-shaped achenes about 0.1" (.25cm) long, lustrous, and black or brown. The achene is enclosed within a leathery top-shaped calyx base[3], which may or may not be winged.[4]

Taxonomy

There is dispute as to the classification of Abronia fragrans, with some recognizing Abronia elliptica as a separate species (Kartesz, Weber) and others believing that the two are the same plant (Welsh). The separation of the two species is based on variances of several characteristics including the shape of the fruit, the hairiness of various parts of the plants, and rhizomatous spreading.[5]

This species was collected by Thomas Nuttall in 1834 near the Platte River and was named by him in Hookers 1853 description.[5] The species name, fragrans, means 'fragrant' and refers to the sweet smell of the blossoms, while the genus name is from the Greek "abros" meaning delicate.[6]

Distribution and habitat

The native range of sweet sand-verbena extends from Northern Arizona to western Texas and Oklahoma north through the Rocky Mountain and western plains regions of the United States and south to Chihuahua, Mexico.[4] Sweet sand-verbena occurs in prairies, plains, and savannas where it can be found growing in loose, dry, sandy soils.[2]

Ecology

The flowers of this plant open in the evening and close again in the morning, a habit which gives the Nyctaginaceae family its common name of Four O'clocks.[6]

Uses

Sweet sand-verbena may be grown in gardens for its attractive blossoms and fragrance, and to attract butterflies.[2]

Southwestern Native Americans used the plant as a wash for sores and insect bites, to treat stomachache, and as an appetite booster.[3]

References

1. ^ a b USDA PLANTS profile: Abronia Fragrans Retrieved March 05, 2010
2. ^ a b c d Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plants Database Retrieved March 05, 2010
3. ^ a b Kansas Wildflowers and Grasses Retrieved 2010-03-07
4. ^ a b Flora of North America Vol. 4 Page 62, 63, 64 Retrieved March 06, 2010
5. ^ a b Southwest Colorado Wildflowers Retrieved March 06, 2010
6. ^ a b Arches National Park Flower Guide Retrieved March 05, 2010

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