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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Cladus: Commelinids
Ordo: Poales

Familia: Cyperaceae
Subfamilia: Cyperoideae
Tribus: Fuireneae
Genus: Actinoscirpus
Species: A. grossus
Name

Actinoscirpus (Ohwi) R.W.Haines & Lye, Bot. Not. 124: 481 (1971)
Synonyms

Basionym
Scirpus sect. Actinoscirpus Ohwi Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto Imp. Univ., Ser. B, Biol. 18: 98. (1943)
Heterotypic
Hymenochaeta P.Beauv. ex Lestib., Essai Cypér.: 43 (1819), nom. rej.

References

Haines, R.W. & Lye, K.A. (1971) Botaniska Notiser 124: 481.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2015. Actinoscirpus in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2015 May 28. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2015. Actinoscirpus. Published online. Accessed: May 28 2015.
Tropicos.org 2015. Actinoscirpus. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2015 May 28.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Actinoscirpus in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 08-Apr-12.

Actinoscirpus is a monospecific genus in the family Cyperaceae which contains only the species Actinoscirpus grossus.[1] It is found across East and South Asia and is known in China as 大藨草 (da biao cao), rumput menderong in Malaysian, and kasheruka within Ayurvedic medicine, which uses the tubers as an antiemetic and treatment for liver and digestive diseases.[2][3] It is a perennial plant that grows rapidly with long rhizomes that end in small tubers. A. grossus is considered a "principal" weed of rice in some Southeast Asian countries. It is abundant in swampy or inundated areas, such as marshes and ditches, and is capable of dominating wetlands and rice patties. It is also a host of Chilo polychrysus, the dark-headed rice borer.
Uses

The tubers of A. grossus are used in folk medicine as a treatment for liver disease, although experimental evidence to support this is limited. Ganapathi et al (2018) showed a protective effect of ethanolic extract of the A. grossus tubers when treating ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats; treatment of the extract significantly restored the liver enzymes, reduced lipid peroxidation, and restored altered catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity.[4]

Studies have shown success using A. grossus and its associated rhizobacteria in improving water quality and removing contaminants through phytoremediation.[5] Syafrizal et al (2020) has shown success in reducing concentrations of ammonium, phosphate, BOD, COD, and other measures of water quality.[6] Additional studies have also shown success in reducing other contaminants, such as total suspended solids, diesel, and lead, as well as remediating various forms of effluent.[7][8]
See also

Fact sheet for Actinoscirpus grossus from the Weed Science Society of America

References

"Actinoscirpus (Ohwi) R.W.Haines & Lye | Plants of the World Online | Kew Science". Plants of the World Online. Retrieved 2021-01-06.
"Actinoscirpus grossus in Flora of China @ efloras.org". www.efloras.org. Retrieved 2021-01-06.
"Utilisation of an aquatic plant (Scirpus grossus) for phytoremediation of real sago mill effluent". Environmental Technology & Innovation. 19: 101033. 2020-08-01. doi:10.1016/j.eti.2020.101033. ISSN 2352-1864.
"Protective effect of ethanolic extract of Actinoscirpus grossus tubers against ethanol induced liver toxicity in albino rats". Journal of King Saud University - Science. 33 (1): 101253. 2021-01-01. doi:10.1016/j.jksus.2020.101253. ISSN 1018-3647.
"Characterisation of Pb-resistant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) from Scirpus grossus". Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology. 23: 101456. 2020-01-01. doi:10.1016/j.bcab.2019.101456. ISSN 1878-8181.
"ShieldSquare Captcha". doi:10.1088/1757-899x/796/1/012058/meta.
"Utilisation of an aquatic plant (Scirpus grossus) for phytoremediation of real sago mill effluent". Environmental Technology & Innovation. 19: 101033. 2020-08-01. doi:10.1016/j.eti.2020.101033. ISSN 2352-1864.
"Performance of continuous pilot subsurface constructed wetland using Scirpus grossus for removal of COD, colour and suspended solid in recycled pulp and paper effluent". Environmental Technology & Innovation. 13: 346–352. 2019-02-01. doi:10.1016/j.eti.2018.12.008. ISSN 2352-1864.

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