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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Ordo: Caryophyllales

Familia: Polygonaceae
Subfamilia: Polygonoideae
Tribus: Polygoneae
Subtribus: Polygoninae
Genus: Atraphaxis
Species: A. angustifolia – A. ariana – A. arida – A. atraphaxiformis – A. aucheri – A. avenia – A. badghysi – A. billardierei – A. binaludensis – A. botuliformis – A. bracteata – A. canescens – A. caucasica – A. compacta – A. daghestanica – A. decipiens – A. dumosa – A. frutescens – A. grandiflora – A. intricata – A. irtyschensis – A. kamelinii – A. karataviensis – A. kermanica – A. khajeh-jamali – A. kopetdagensis – A. laetevirens – A. macrocarpa – A. manshurica – A. muschketovii – A. ovczinnikovii – A. popovii – A. pungens – A. pyrifolia – A. radkanensis – A. replicata – A. rodinii – A. salicornioides – A. seravschanica – A. spinosa – A. suaedifolia – A. teretifolia – A. toktogulica – A. tortuosa – A. virgata –

Atraphaxis L. Sp. Pl. 1: 333 (1753).

Type species: Atraphaxis spinosa L. Sp. Pl. 1: 333 (1753).


Pedalium Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 277 (1763), non Pedalium D.Royen ex L., Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 2: 1123, 1375 (1759) (Lamiaceae).
Persepolium Yurtseva & Mavrodiev, Phytotaxa 314: 185 (2017).
Persicaria Neck., Elem. Bot. 2: 210 (1790) non Persicaria (L.) Mill.
Physopyrum Popov, Index Seminum (AA, Almaatensis) 2: 23 (1935).
Tragopyrum M.Bieb., Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 3: 284 (1819).

Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 333. Reference page.

Additional references

Yurtseva, O.V., Kuznetsova, O.I., Mavrodieva, M.E. & Mavrodiev, E.V. 2016. What is Atraphaxis L.(Polygonaceae, Polygoneae): cryptic taxa and resolved taxonomic complexity instead of the formal lumping and the lack of morphological synapomorphies. PeerJ, 4: p.e1977. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.1977 Reference page.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2022. Atraphaxis in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2022 Jan. 2. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2017. Atraphaxis. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2017. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2017 Apr. 8. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2015. Atraphaxis. Published online. Accessed: Mar. 16 2015.
Tropicos.org 2015. Atraphaxis. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2015 Mar. 16.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Atraphaxis in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 09-Oct-10.

Atraphaxis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Polygonaceae with about 40 species.


Species of Atraphaxis are much branched woody plants, forming shrubs or shrubby tufts. The current year's branchlets are herbaceous and bear the leaves and flowers. The leaves are simple and alternate, with very short stalks (almost sessile). The ochreas are membranous and usually two-veined, more-or-less joined at the base. The inflorescence is made up of several bundles (fascicles) of one to three flowers. The flowers have persistent tepals, either arranged in a narrow tube with unequal lobes or bell-shaped with equal segments. The fruits are wingless achenes.[2]

The genus Atraphaxis was erected by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. As with many other genera in the family Polygonaceae, the boundaries between the genera have been unclear, and some or all species placed in other genera. Molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that Atraphaxis forms a distinct clade.[2][3] The genus is placed in the tribe Polygoneae of the subfamily Polygonoideae. Within the tribe, it is most closely related to the genera Duma and Polygonum, forming the so-called "DAP clade".[3]



Polygonum ciliinode (syn. Fallopia ciliinodis)

DAP clade




RMF clade



Fallopia s.s.


As of March 2019, Plants of the World Online accepted 41 species:[1]

Atraphaxis angustifolia Jaub. & Spach
Atraphaxis ariana (Grigorj.) T.M.Schust. & Reveal
Atraphaxis arida (Boiss. & Hausskn.) S.Tavakkoli & Kaz.Osaloo
Atraphaxis atraphaxiformis (Botsch.) T.M.Schust. & Reveal
Atraphaxis aucheri Jaub. & Spach
Atraphaxis avenia Botsch.
Atraphaxis badghysi Kult.
Atraphaxis billardierei Jaub. & Spach
Atraphaxis binaludensis S.Tavakkoli, Mozaff. & Kaz.Osaloo
Atraphaxis botuliformis (Mozaff.) S.Tavakkoli & Mozaff.
Atraphaxis bracteata Losinsk.
Atraphaxis canescens Bunge
Atraphaxis caucasica (Hoffm.) Pavlov
Atraphaxis compacta Ledeb.
Atraphaxis daghestanica (Lovelius) Lovelius
Atraphaxis decipiens Jaub. & Spach
Atraphaxis dumosa (Boiss.) S.Tavakkoli & Kaz.Osaloo
Atraphaxis frutescens (L.) K.Koch
Atraphaxis grandiflora Willd.
Atraphaxis intricata Mozaff.
Atraphaxis irtyschensis Chang Y.Yang & Y.L.Han
Atraphaxis kamelinii Yurtseva
Atraphaxis karataviensis Pavlov & Lipsch.
Atraphaxis kermanica S.Tavakkoli & Kaz.Osaloo
Atraphaxis khajeh-jamali (Khosravi & Poormahdi) S.Tavakkoli & Kaz.Osaloo
Atraphaxis kopetdagensis Kovalevsk.
Atraphaxis laetevirens (Ledeb.) Jaub. & Spach
Atraphaxis macrocarpa Rech.f. & Schiman-Czeika
Atraphaxis manshurica Kitag.
Atraphaxis muschketowii Krasn.
Atraphaxis popovii (Borodina) Yurtseva
Atraphaxis pungens (M.Bieb.) Jaub. & Spach
Atraphaxis pyrifolia Bunge
Atraphaxis radkanensis S.Tavakkoli, Kaz.Osaloo & Mozaff.
Atraphaxis rodinii Botsch.
Atraphaxis salicornioides (Jaub. & Spach) S.Tavakkoli & Kaz.Osaloo
Atraphaxis seravschanica Pavlov
Atraphaxis spinosa L.
Atraphaxis suaedifolia Jaub. & Spach
Atraphaxis teretifolia (Popov) Kom.
Atraphaxis toktogulica (Lazkov) T.M.Schust. & Reveal


"Atraphaxis L.", Plants of the World Online, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, retrieved 2019-03-04
Tavakkoli, S.; Osaloo, S.K.; Mozaffarian, V. & Maassoumi, A.A. (2015), "Molecular phylogeny of Atraphaxis and the woody Polygonum species (Polygonaceae): Taxonomic implications based on molecular and morphological evidence", Plant Systematics and Evolution, 301: 1157–1170, doi:10.1007/s00606-014-1140-7
Schuster, Tanja M.; Reveal, James L.; Bayly, Michael J. & Kron, Kathleen A. (2015), "An updated molecular phylogeny of Polygonoideae (Polygonaceae): Relationships of Oxygonum, Pteroxygonum, and Rumex, and a new circumscription of Koenigia", Taxon, 64 (6): 1188–1208, doi:10.12705/646.5

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