Hellenica World

Bergenia

Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Magnoliophyta
Classis: Magnoliopsida
Ordo: Saxifragales
Familia: Saxifragaceae
Genus: Bergenia
Species: B. ciliata - B. crassifolia - B. delavayi - B. pacifica - B. pacumbis - B. purpurascens

Name

Bergenia Moench

Vernacular names
Русский: Бадан

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Bergenia (pronounced /bərˈɡɛniə/, with a hard g)[1] is a genus of ten species of flowering plants in the family Saxifragaceae, native to central Asia, from Afghanistan to China and the Himalayan region. They are evergreen perennial plants with a spirally arranged rosette of leaves 6–35 cm long and 4–15 cm broad, and pink flowers produced in a cyme.

The leaves are leathery, look like a heart, and often have wavy or saw-toothed edges. For most of the year, the leaves have a glossy green color, but in cooler climates, they turn red or bronze in the fall. The flowers grow on a stem similar in color to a rhubarb stalk and most varieties have cone-shaped flowers in varying shades of pink. These can range from almost white to ruby red and purple.[2]

The common names for Bergenia are pigsqueak (due to the sound produced when two leaves are rubbed together) and elephant's ears (due to the shape of the leaves).

Bergenia is closely related to Mukdenia, Oresitrophe Astilboides, and Rodgersia.

The creator of the taxonomic genus epithet, Conrad Moench, honored the German botanist and physician Karl August von Bergen by coining the name Bergenia in 1794.

Species

* Bergenia ciliata, including the cultivar Bergenia ciliata 'Superba'
* Bergenia cordifolia is the most widely grown garden plant, especially the cultivar Bergenia cordifolia 'Purpurea.' The species epithet cordifolia means: heart-shaped leaf. The leaves are winter hardy and change color in the range of rust brown to brown-red. Other cultivars are Bergenia cordifolia 'Winterglut' and Bergenia cordifolia 'Senior.'
* Bergenia crassifolia is about 12 inches tall. The leaves are spoon-shaped. One cultivar is Bergenia crassifolia 'Autumn Red.'
* Bergenia emeiensis
* Bergenia ligulata
* Bergenia pacumbis
* Bergenia purpurascens is 12-16 inches tall and has carmine-red flowers. The leaves are oval-shaped.
o Bergenia purpurascens var. delavayi is ca. 20 inches tall with small leaves and rosy red flowers.
* Bergenia scopulosa
* Bergenia stracheyi with the cultivars Bergenia stracheyi 'Alba' and Bergenia stracheyi 'Afghanica'
* Bergenia tianquanensis


Cultivation

Bergenia are hardy plants that can grow in climates with extreme temperature ranges from about −35 °F (−37 °C) to 115 °F (46 °C). They prefer sun but will grow in shady areas as well. Plants can grow to about 24 in (61 cm) tall and 24 in (61 cm) wide. They do well in most soils, but moist, humus-rich soil is preferable. Dry soils tend to stunt growth. Plants can be planted in the spring or fall. In areas with cold, strong winter winds, protection from the wind may be required.[2]

Bergenia cordata, Bergenia cordifolia, and various hybrids are often grown in gardens, with several cultivars selected.

Available in the garden trade are:

* Bergenia 'Abendglocken'
* Bergenia 'Abendglut'
* Bergenia 'Admiral'
* Bergenia 'Bach'
* Bergenia 'Baby Doll'
* Bergenia 'Ballawley'
* Bergenia 'Beethoven'
* Bergenia 'Biedermeier'
* Bergenia 'Blickfang'
* Bergenia 'Brahms'
* Bergenia 'Bressingham Beauty'
* Bergenia 'Bressingham Bountiful'
* Bergenia 'Bressingham Ruby'
* Bergenia 'Bressingham Salmon'
* Bergenia 'Bressingham White'
* Bergenia 'Britten'
* Bergenia 'David'
* Bergenia 'Doppelgänger'
* Bergenia 'Eric Smith'
* Bergenia 'Eroica'
* Bergenia 'Glockenturm'
* Bergenia 'Goldfisch'
* Bergenia 'Herbstblüte'
* Bergenia 'Illusion'
* Bergenia 'Margery Fish'
* Bergenia 'Morgenröte'
* Bergenia 'Oeschberg'
* Bergenia 'Ouverture'
* Bergenia 'Perfect'
* Bergenia 'Pink Dragonfly'
* Bergenia 'Pinneberg'
* Bergenia 'Profusion'
* Bergenia 'Purpurglocken'
* Bergenia 'Purpurkönigin'
* Bergenia 'Red Star'
* Bergenia 'Rosa Zeiten'
* Bergenia 'Rosette'
* Bergenia 'Rosi Klose'
* Bergenia 'Rotblum'
* Bergenia 'Rote Schwester'
* Bergenia 'Schneeglocke'
* Bergenia 'Schneekönigin'
* Bergenia 'Silberlicht'
* Bergenia 'Summer Mountain'
* Bergenia 'Sunningdale'
* Bergenia 'Walter Kienli'
* Bergenia 'Wintergold'
* Bergenia 'Wintermärchen'
* Bergenia 'Winterzauber'
* Bergenia 'Yellow Medley'


Pests and diseases

Bergenia are robust plants and generally free of problems, although vine weevil adults readily eat the edges of the leaves, resulting in an indented, 'notched' outline which can detract from the appearance of the plant.

Uses

Bergenin, C-glycoside of 4-O-methyl gallic acid, and its O-demethylated derivative norbergenin, are chemical compounds and drugs of Ayurveda, commonly known as Paashaanbhed. It can be isolated from Bergenia ciliata and Bergenia ligulata[3] and from rhizomes of Bergenia stracheyi. It shows a potent immunomodulatory effect[4].

References

1. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
2. ^ a b "Guide to Growing Bergenia Plants". The Garden Helper. http://www.thegardenhelper.com/bergenia.html. Retrieved 2009-06-30.
3. ^ Simultaneous quantification of bergenin, catechin, and gallic acid from Bergenia ciliata and Bergenia ligulata by using thin-layer chromatography. Dhalwal K.; Shinde V.M.; Biradar Y.S.; Mahadik K.R.; 2008
4. ^ Immunomodulatory effect of bergenin and norbergenin against adjuvant-induced arthritis—A flow cytometric study Nighat Nazira, Surrinder Koulb, Mushtaq A. Qurishia, Sachin C. Tanejab, Sheikh F. Ahmadc, Sarang Banic and Ghulam N. Qazi, 2006

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Source: Wikipedia, Wikispecies: All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

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