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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Ordo: Caryophyllales

Familia: Amaranthaceae s.l.
Cladus: Chenopodiaceae s.str.
Subfamilia: Salsoloideae
Tribus: Caroxyleae
Genus: Caroxylon

Species: C. abarghuense – C. acocksii – C. adiscum – C. adversariifolium – C. aellenii – C. agrigentinum – C. albidum – C. albisepalum – C. angolense – C. aphyllum – C. apiciflorum – C. apterygeum – C. araneosum – C. arboreum – C. armatum – C. aroabicum – C. atratum – C. barbatum – C. boissieri – C. calluna – C. camphorosmoides – C. campylopterum – C. cauliflorum – C. carpathum – C. chorassanicum – C. ceresicum – C. columnare – C. contrariifolium – C. cryptopterum – C. cyclophyllum – C. dealatum – C. decussatum – C. denudatum – C. dinteri – C. divaricatum – C. dolichostigmum – C. esterhuyseniae – C. etoshense – C. exalatum – C. forcipitatum – C. gaetulum – C. garubicum – C. geminiflorum – C. gemmascens – C. gemmatum – C. gemmiferum – C. gemmiparum – C. giessii – C. glabrescens – C. glabrum – C. henriciae – C. hoanibicum – C. hottentotticum – C. huabicum – C. humifusum – C. iljinii – C. imbricatum – C. inapertum – C. inerme – C. jordanicola – C. kalaharicum – C. kleinfonteini – C. koichabicum – C. littorale – C. luederitzense – C. marginatum – C. melananthum – C. merxmuelleri – C. microtrichum – C. minutifolium – C. mirabile – C. namaqualandicum – C. namibicum – C. nigrescens – C. nodulosum – C. nollothense – C. okaukuejense – C. omaruruense – C. parviflorum – C. passerinum – C. patentipilosum – C. pearsonii – C. persicum – C. phillipsii – C. pillansii – C. procerum – C. ptilopterum – C. pulvinatum – C. rabieanum – C. robinsonii – C. ruschii – C. schreiberae – C. scleranthum – C. scopiforme – C. seminudum – C. sericatum – C. seydelii – C. smithii – C. spenceri – C. spinescens – C. squarrosulum – C. stenopterum – C. swakopmundi – C. tetragonum – C. tetramerum – C. tetrandrum – C. tuberculatiforme – C. tuberculatum – C. turkestanicum – C. ugabicum – C. unjabicum – C. verdoorniae – C. warmbadicum – C. yazdianum – C. zeyheri


Names in synonymyː C. acutifolium – C. aegaeum – C. arabicum – C. articulatum – C. auriculum – C. azaurenum – C. bottae – C. brevifolium – C. caffrum – C. canescens – C. dendroides – C. dzhungaricum – C. ericoides – C. foetidum – C. genistoides – C. glaucum – C. griffithii – C. hispidulum – C. implicatum – C. incanescens – C. indicum – C. lancifolium – C. laricinum – C. micrantherum – C. nitrarium – C. orientale – C. recurvum – C. roshevitzii – C. salicornicum – C. salsola – C. subaphyllum – C. tamariscifolium – C. tamariscinum – C. tomentosum – C. vermiculatum – C. verrucosum – C. villosum – C. volkensii
Name

Caroxylon Thunb., Nov. Gen. Pl. [Thunberg] 2: 37. (1782)

Type: Caroxylon salsola Thunb. (= Caroxylon aphyllum (L.f.) Tzvelev)

Synonyms

Homotypic
Salsola sect. Caroxylon (Thunb.) Fenzl in Ledeb., Fl. Ross. 3: 809 (1851)
Type: Caroxylon salsola Thunb. (= Caroxylon aphyllum (L.f.) Tzvelev) (Type erroneously cited as Salsola aphylla by Botschantzev 1974)
Heterotypic
Muratina Maire, , Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N. 29: 122, in obs., 446. (1938)
Type: Muratina zolotarevakyana Maire
Sarcomorphis Bojer ex Moq. in Candolle Prodr. 13(2): 180. (1849), nom. inval. in syn.
Salsola sect. Irania Botsch., Bot. Zhurn. 71: 1400 (1986)
Salsola sect. Malpighipila Botsch., Bot. Zhurn. 54: 990 (1969), as "Malpigipila"
Type: Salsola gemmascens Pall.
Salsola sect. Cardiandra Aellen, Not. Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinb. 28: 32 (1968)
Type: Salsola inermis Forssk.
Salsola sect. Aleurantha Iljin, Fl. URSS 6: 256 (1936) descr. ross.
Type: Salsola sclerantha C.A.Mey.

References
Primary references

Aellen, P. 1967. New Chenopodiaceae from Turkey. Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh 28(1): 29–34. Archive.org Reference page. : 32
Botschantzev, V.P. 1969. The genus Salsola: a concise history of its development and dispersal. Botanicheskii Zhurnal (Moscow & Leningrad) 54(7): 989–1001. [In Russian] Reference page. : 990
Botschantzev, V.P. 1986. Irania, a new section of the genus Salsola (Chenopodiaceae). Botanicheskii Zhurnal (Moscow & Leningrad) 71: 1400–1401. [In Russian] Reference page. : 1400
Fenzl, E. 1851. Salsolaceae. pp. 689–853. In: Ledebour, C.F.: Flora Rossica Vol. 3, Pars 2. BHL Reference page. : 809
Iljin, M.M. 1936. Chenopodiaceae. In: Komarov, V.L. & Shishkin, B.K. (eds.): Flora URSS 6: 2–354. (russian) BHL (english translation). Reference page. : 256
Maire, R.C.J.E. 1938. Contributions à l'étude de la Flore de l'Afrique du Nord (Fascicule 26) [nos. 2378–2617]. Bulletin de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de l'Afrique du Nord 29(6): 403–458. BibDigital Reference page. : 122 in obs., [446
Moquin-Tandon, A. 1849. Salsolaceae. In: De Candolle, A.P. (ed.): Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis 13(2): 41–219. Masson, Paris. BHL Reference page. : 180
Thunberg, C.P. 1782. Nova Genera Plantarum 2: 37. / Id. 1783. in Acta medicorum suecicorum 1: 239.

Additional references

Akhani, H., Khoshravesh, R. & Malekmohammadi, M. 2016. Taxonomic novelties from Irano-Turanian region and NE Iran: Oreosalsola, a new segregate from Salsola s.l., two new species in Anabasis and Salvia, and two new combinations in Caroxylon and Seseli. Phytotaxa 249(1): 159–180. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.249.1.7 Reference page. : 165
Akhani, H., Edwards, G. & Roalson, E.H. 2007. Diversification of the Old World Salsoleae s.l. (Chenopodiaceae): Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Nuclear and Chloroplast Data Sets and a Revised Classification. International Journal of Plant Sciences 168(6): 931–956. DOI: 10.1086/518263 ResearchGate Reference page. : 946
Brullo, C., Brullo, S., Giusso, G., Guarino, R. & Iamonico, D. 2013. Il genere Salsola s.l. (Chenopodiaceae) in Italia. Contributi alla ricerca floristica in Italia: 36–38. PDF Reference page.
Falatoury, A.N., Iamonico, D. & Freitag, H. 2017. Nomenclature of Caroxylon imbricatum s.lat. (Amaranthaceae / Chenopodiaceae), with a new combination at variety rank. Phytotaxa 331(1): 101–108. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.331.1.8 Reference page.
Freitag, H. 1997. Salsola sect. Caroxylon, Malpighipila, Cardiandra. - In:
Hedge, I.C., Akhani, H., Freitag, H., Kothe-Heinrich, G., Podlech, D., Rilke, S. & Uotila, P. 1997. Chenopodiaceae. In: Rechinger, K.H. (ed.): Flora Iranica Vol. 172. 371 pp., 212 tab., Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt Graz. Reference page. : 192–228.
Freitag, H. 2013. in: Vascular Plants of Afghanistan DOI: 10.1111/boj.12187: 264.
Mucina, L. 2017. Caroxylon (Chenopodiaceae s.str.) in continental southern Africa and Madagascar: a preliminary nomenclatural synopsis and biogeographical considerations. Phytotaxa 312(2): 151–178. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.312.2.1 Reference page.
Sukhorukov, A.P., Akopian, J., & Zernov, A. 2011. On some new and critical taxa of the Family Chenopodiaceae in the flora of the Caucasus. Novosti Sistematiki Vysshikh Rastenii 42: 106–110. Reference page. : 107
Theodorova (Feodorova), T.A. 2011. Phylogenetic relations of the South African species of Caroxylon sect. Caroxylon and Tetragonae (Chenopodiaceae) based on the morphology and nrITS Sequences. Turczaninowia 14(3): 69–76 (Russian, English summary). Reference page. : 74–75
Theodorova (Feodorova), T.A. 2015. New nomenclatural combinations in Nitrosalsola (Chenopodiaceae). Ukrayins'kyi Botanicnyi Zhurnal 72(5): 442–445. DOI: 10.15407/ukrbotj72.05.442 PDF Reference page.

Links

Hassler, M. 2018. Caroxylon. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 May 23. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Caroxylon. Published online. Accessed: May 23 2018.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Caroxylon in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Mar. 07. Reference page.
Tropicos.org 2016. Caroxylon. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 14 January 2016.


Caroxylon is a genus of shrubby flowering plants in the family Chenopodiaceae, found in drier areas of the Old World, including southern Africa, Madagascar, northern Africa, Mediterranean islands of Europe, the Canary Islands, Socotra, Ukraine, Russia, western Asia, Central Asia, India, western and northern China, and Mongolia.[3]
Species

Currently accepted species include:

Caroxylon abarghuense (Assadi) Akhani & Roalson
Caroxylon acocksii (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon adiscum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon adversariifolium (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon aegaeum (Rech.f.) Akhani & Roalson
Caroxylon aellenii (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon agrigentinum (Guss.) C.Brullo, Brullo, Giusso, Guarino & Iamonico
Caroxylon albidum (Botsch.) Theodorova
Caroxylon albisepalum (Aellen) Mucina
Caroxylon aphyllum (L.f.) Tzvelev
Caroxylon apiciflorum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon apterygeum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon arabicum (Botsch.) Akhani & Roalson
Caroxylon araneosum (Botsch.) Akhani & Roalson
Caroxylon arboreum (C.A.Sm. ex Aellen) Mucina
Caroxylon armatum (C.A.Sm. ex Aellen) Mucina
Caroxylon aroabicum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon atratum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon barbatum (Aellen) Mucina
Caroxylon caffrum (Sparrm.) Mucina
Caroxylon calluna (Drège ex C.H.Wright) Theodorova ex Mucina
Caroxylon campylopterum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon carpathum (P.H.Davis) Akhani & Roalson
Caroxylon cauliflorum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon ceresicum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon chorassanicum (Botsch.) Akhani & Roalson
Caroxylon columnare (Botsch.) Theodorova
Caroxylon contrariifolium (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon cryptopterum (Aellen) Mucina
Caroxylon cyclophyllum (Baker) Akhani & Roalson
Caroxylon dealatum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon decussatum (C.A.Sm. ex Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon dendroides (Pall.) Tzvelev
Caroxylon denudatum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon dinteri (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon divaricatum Moq.
Caroxylon dolichostigmum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon dzhungaricum (Iljin) Akhani & Roalson
Caroxylon ericoides (M.Bieb.) Akhani & Roalson
Caroxylon esterhuyseniae (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon etoshense (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon exalatum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon forcipitatum (Iljin) Akhani & Roalson
Caroxylon gaetulum (Maire) Akhani & Roalson
Caroxylon garubicum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon geminiflorum (Fenzl ex C.H.Wright) Mucina
Caroxylon gemmascens (Pall.) Tzvelev
Caroxylon gemmatum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon gemmiferum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon gemmiparum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon genistoides (Juss. ex Poir.) Pau
Caroxylon giessii (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon glabrescens (Burtt Davy) Akhani & Roalson
Caroxylon glabrum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon henriciae (I.Verd.) Mucina
Caroxylon hoanibicum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon hottentotticum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon huabicum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon humifusum (C.A.Sm. ex A.E.Brueckner) Theodorova
Caroxylon iljinii (Botsch.) Akhani
Caroxylon imbricatum (Forssk.) Moq.
Caroxylon inapertum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon incanescens (C.A.Mey.) Akhani & Roalson
Caroxylon inerme (Forssk.) Akhani & Roalson
Caroxylon jordanicola (Eig) Akhani & Roalson
Caroxylon kalaharicum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon kleinfonteini (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon koichabicum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon laricinum (Pall.) Tzvelev
Caroxylon littoralis (Moq.) Akhani & Roalson
Caroxylon marginatum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon melananthum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon merxmuelleri (Aellen) Mucina
Caroxylon micrantherum (Botsch.) Sukhor.
Caroxylon microtrichum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon minutifolium (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon mirabile (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon namaqualandicum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon namibicum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon nigrescens (C.A.Sm. ex I.Verd.) Mucina
Caroxylon nitrarium (Pall.) Akhani & Roalson
Caroxylon nodulosum Moq.
Caroxylon nollothense (Aellen) Mucina
Caroxylon okaukuejense (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon omaruruense (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon orientale (S.G.Gmel.) Tzvelev
Caroxylon parviflorum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon passerinum (Bunge) Akhani & Roalson
Caroxylon patentipilosum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon pearsonii (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon persicum (Bunge ex Boiss.) Akhani & Roalson
Caroxylon phillipsii (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon pillansii (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon procerum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon ptilopterum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon pulvinatum (Botsch.) Akhani & Roalson
Caroxylon rabieanum (C.A.Sm. ex I.Verd.) Mucina
Caroxylon robinsonii (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon roshevitzii (Iljin) Akhani & Roalson
Caroxylon ruschii (Aellen) Mucinav
Caroxylon schreiberae (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon scleranthum (C.A.Mey.) Akhani & Roalson
Caroxylon scopiforme (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon seminudum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon sericatum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon seydelii (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon smithii (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon spenceri (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon spinescens (Moq.) Akhani & Roalson
Caroxylon squarrosulum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon stenopterum (Wagenitz) Akhani & Roalson
Caroxylon swakopmundi (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon tetragonum (Delile) Moq.
Caroxylon tetramerum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon tetrandrum (Forssk.) Akhani & Roalson
Caroxylon tuberculatiforme (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon tuberculatum Moq.
Caroxylon turkestanicum (Litv.) Akhani & Roalson
Caroxylon ugabicum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon unjabicum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon verdoorniae (Toelken) Mucina
Caroxylon vermiculatum (L.) Akhani & Roalson
Caroxylon villosum (Schult.) Akhani & Roalson
Caroxylon volkensii (Schweinf. & Asch.) Akhani & Roalson
Caroxylon warmbadicum (Botsch.) Mucina
Caroxylon yazdianum (Assadi) Akhani & Roalson
Caroxylon zeyheri Moq.

References

Nov. Gen. Pl.: 37 (1782)
"Caroxylon Thunb". Plants of the World Online. Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
Mucina, Ladislav (2017). "Caroxylon (Chenopodiaceae s.str.) in continental southern Africa and Madagascar: A preliminary nomenclatural synopsis and biogeographical considerations". Phytotaxa. 312 (2): 151. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.312.2.1.

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