- Art Gallery -

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Dioscoreales

Familia: Dioscoreaceae
Genus: Dioscorea
Sectiones: D. sect. Allactostemon – D. sect. Amphistemon – D. sect. Dioscorea – D. sect. Enantiophyllum – D. sect. Lasiophyton – D. sect. Lychnostemon – D. sect. Opsophyton – D. sect. Spinosa

Species:
A

D. abysmophila – D. abyssinica – D. acanthogene – D. acerifolia – D. acuminata – D. adenantha – D. aesculifolia – D. aguilarii – D. alainii – D. alata – D. alatipes – D. althaeoides – D. amazonum – D. amoena – D. analalavensis – D. ancachsensis – D. andina – D. andromedusae – D. anomala – D. antaly – D. antucoana – D. arachidna – D. araucana – D. arcuatinervis – D. argyrogyna – D. arifolia – D. aristolochiifolia – D. asclepiadea – D. aspera – D. aspersa – D. asperula – D. asteriscus – D. atrescens – D. auriculata
B

D. bahiensis – D. bako – D. balcanica – D. bancana – D. banzhuana – D. baracoensis – D. bartlettii – D. basiclavicaulis – D. baya – D. beecheyi – D. belophylla – D. bemandry – D. bemarivensis – D. benthamii – D. berenicea – D. bermejensis – D. bernoulliana – D. besseriana – D. beyrichii – D. bicolor – D. biformifolia – D. biloba – D. biplicata – D. birmanica – D. birschelii – D. blumei – D. bolivarensis – D. bonii – D. bosseri – D. brachybotrya – D. brachystachya – D. bradei – D. brandisii – D. brevipetiolata – D. bridgesii – D. brownii – D. bryoniifolia – D. buchananii – D. buckleyana – D. bulbifera – D. bulbotricha – D. burchellii – D. burkilliana
C

D. cachipuertensis – D. calcicola – D. caldasensis – D. calderillensis – D. callacatensis – D. cambodiana – D. campanulata – D. campestris – D. campos-portoi – D. carionis – D. carpomaculata – D. castilloniana – D. catharinensis – D. caucasica – D. cayenensis – D. cephalocarpa – D. ceratandra – D. chagllaensis – D. chancayensis – D. chaponensis – D. chiapasensis – D. chimborazensis – D. chingii – D. chondrocarpa – D. choriandra – D. chouardii – D. cienegensis – D. cinnamomifolia – D. cirrhosa – D. cissophylla – D. claessensii – D. claussenii – D. claytonii – D. cochleariapiculata – D. collettii – D. communis – D. commutata – D. comorensis – D. compacta – D. composita – D. contracta – D. convolvulacea – D. conzattii – D. cordata – D. cordifolia – D. coreana – D. coriacea – D. coronata – D. cotinifolia – D. craibiana – D. crateriflora – D. crotalariifolia – D. cruzensis – D. cubensis – D. cumingii – D. curitybensis – D. cuspidata – D. cuyabensis – D. cyanisticta – D. cymosula – D. cyphocarpa
D

D. daunea – D. davidsei – D. de-mourae – D. debilis – D. decaryana – D. decipiens – D. decorticans – D. deflexa – D. delavayi – D. delicata – D. deltoidea – D. dendrotricha – D. densiflora – D. depauperata – D. diamantinensis – D. dicranandra – D. dielsii – D. dissimulans – D. divaricata – D. diversifolia – D. dodecaneura – D. dregeana – D. dugesii – D. dumetorum – D. dumetosa
E

D. elegans – D. elephantipes – D. entomophila – D. epistephioides – D. escuintlensis – D. esculenta – D. esquirolii – D. exalata
F

D. fandra – D. fasciculocongesta – D. fastigiata – D. fendleri – D. ferreyrae – D. filiformis – D. flabellifolia – D. flabellispina – D. flaccida – D. floribunda – D. floridana – D. fodinarum – D. fordii – D. formosana – D. fractiflexa – D. fuliginosa – D. furcata – D. futschauensis
G

D. galeottiana – D. galiiflora – D. gallegosi – D. garrettii – D. gaumeri – D. gentryi – D. gillettii – D. glabra – D. glandulosa – D. glauca – D. glomerulata – D. gomez-pompae – D. gracilicaulis – D. gracilipes – D. gracilis – D. gracillima – D. grandiflora – D. grandis – D. grata – D. gribinguiensis – D. grisebachii – D. guerrerensis – D. guianensis
H

D. haenkeana – D. haitiensis – D. hamiltonii – D. hassleriana – D. hastata – D. hastatissima – D. hastifolia – D. hastiformis – D. haumanii – D. havilandii – D. hebridensis – D. hemicrypta – D. hemsleyi – D. heptaneura – D. herbert-smithii – D. heteropoda – D. hexagona – D. hieronymi – D. hintonii – D. hirtiflora – D. hispida – D. holmioidea – D. hombuka – D. hondurensis – D. howardiana – D. humifusa – D. humilis – D. hunzikeri – D. hyalinomarginata – D. hybrida
I

D. igualamontana – D. incayensis – D. inopinata – D. insignis – D. intermedia – D. introrsa – D. ionophylla – D. iquitosensis – D. irupanensis – D. itapirensis – D. itatiensis – D. izuensis
J

D. jaliscana – D. jamesonii – D. japonica – D. javariensis – D. juxtlahuacensis – D. kalkapershadii – D. kamoonensis – D. keduensis – D. kerrii – D. killipii – D. kimiae – D. kingii – D. kituiensis – D. kjellbergii – D. knuthiana – D. koepperi – D. koyamae – D. kratica – D. kuntzei
L

D. lacerdaei – D. laevis – D. lamprocaula – D. lanata – D. laurifolia – D. lawrancei – D. laxiflora – D. lehmannii – D. lepcharum – D. lepida – D. leptobotrys – D. liebmannii – D. lijiangensis – D. linearicordata – D. lisae – D. listeri – D. litoralis – D. loefgrenii – D. loheri – D. longicuspis – D. longipes – D. longirhiza – D. longituba – D. lundii – D. luzonensis
M

D. macbrideana – D. maciba – D. macrantha – D. macrothyrsa – D. macvaughii – D. madecassa – D. madiunensis – D. maianthemoides – D. mamillata – D. mangenotiana – D. mantigueirensis – D. margarethia – D. marginata – D. martensis – D. martiana – D. martini – D. matagalpensis – D. matudae – D. mayottensis – D. megacarpa – D. megalantha – D. megaphylla – D. melanophyma – D. melastomatifolia – D. membranacea – D. menglaensis – D. meridensis – D. merrillii – D. mesoamericana – D. mexicana – D. microbotrya – D. microcephala – D. microflora – D. microphylla – D. microura – D. mindanaensis – D. minima – D. minutiflora – D. mitis – D. mitoensis – D. modesta – D. mollis – D. monadelpha – D. monandra – D. morelosana – D. moritziana – D. mosqueirensis – D. moultonii – D. moyobambensis – D. mucronata – D. multiflora – D. multiloba – D. multinervis – D. multispicata – D. mundii
N

D. nako – D. namorokensis – D. nana – D. nanlaensis – D. natalia – D. neblinensis – D. nelsonii – D. nematodes – D. nervata – D. nervosa – D. nicolasensis – D. nieuwenhuisii – D. nipensis – D. nipponica – D. nitens – D. nuda – D. nummularia – D. nutans –
O

D. oaxacensis
D. obcuneata – D. oblonga – D. oblongifolia – D. obtusifolia – D. olfersiana – D. oligophylla – D. omiltemensis – D. opaca – D. oppositiflora – D. oppositifolia – D. orangeana – D. orbiculata – D. oreodoxa – D. organensis – D. orientalis – D. orizabensis – D. orthogoneura – D. oryzetorum – D. ovalifolia – D. ovata – D. ovinala
P

D. palawana – D. paleata – D. pallens – D. pallidinervia – D. palmeri – D. panamensis – D. panthaica – D. pantojensis – D. paradoxa – D. pavonii – D. pedalis – D. pedicellata – D. pencana – D. pendula – D. pentaphylla – D. peperoides – D. perdicum – D. perenensis – D. petelotii – D. philippiana – D. piauhyensis – D. pierrei – D. pilcomayensis – D. pilgeriana – D. pilifera – D. pilosiuscula – D. pinedensis – D. piperifolia – D. piscatorum – D. pittieri – D. planistipulosa – D. plantaginifolia – D. platycarpa – D. platycolpota – D. plumifera – D. pohlii – D. poilanei – D. polyclados – D. polygonoides – D. polystachya – D. pomeroonensis – D. porulosa – D. potarensis – D. praehensilis – D. prainiana – D. prazeri – D. preslii – D. preussii – D. pringlei – D. proteiformis – D. psammophila – D. pseudojaponica – D. pseudomacrocapsa – D. pseudorajanioides – D. pseudotomentosa – D. psilostachya – D. pteropoda – D. pubera – D. pubescens – D. pumicicola – D. pumilio – D. puncticulata – D. purdiei – D. putisensis – D. putumayensis – D. pynaertii – D. pyrenaica – D. pyrifolia
Q

D. quartiniana – D. quinquefolia – D. quinquelobata – D. quispicanchensis
R

D. racemosa – D. raziae – D. regnellii – D. remota – D. remotiflora – D. reticulata – D. retusa – D. reversiflora – D. richardhowardii – D. ridleyi – D. riedelii – D. rimbachii – D. rockii – D. rosei – D. rumicoides – D. rupicola – D. rusbyi
S

D. sabarensis – D. sagittata – D. sagittifolia – D. salicifolia – D. salvadorensis – D. sambiranensis – D. sanchez-colini – D. sandiensis – D. sandwithii – D. sanpaulensis – D. sansibarensis – D. santanderensis – D. santosensis – D. sarasinii – D. saxatilis – D. scabra – D. schimperiana – D. schubertiae – D. schunkei – D. schwackei – D. scorpioidea – D. scortechinii – D. secunda – D. sellowiana – D. semperflorens – D. septemloba – D. septemnervis – D. sericea – D. seriflora – D. serpenticola – D. sessiliflora – D. sexrimata – D. simulans – D. sincorensis – D. sinoparviflora – D. sinuata – D. sitamiana – D. skottsbergii – D. smilacifolia – D. sonlaensis – D. sororopana – D. soso – D. spectabilis – D. sphaeroidea – D. spicata – D. spiculiflora – D. spongiosa – D. sprucei – D. standleyi – D. stegelmanniana – D. stellaris – D. stemonoides – D. stenocolpus – D. stenomeriflora – D. stenopetala – D. stenophylla – D. sterilis – D. stipulosa – D. strydomiana – D. subcalva – D. subhastata – D. sublignosa – D. subnigra – D. subtomentosa – D. sumatrana – D. sumiderensis – D. suratensis – D. sylvatica – D. synandra – D. syringifolia
T

D. tabatae – D. tacanensis – D. tamarisciflora – D. tamoidea – D. tamshiyacuensis – D. tancitarensis – D. tarijensis – D. tarmensis – D. tauriglossum – D. tayacajensis – D. temascaltepecensis – D. tenebrosa – D. tenella – D. tentaculigera – D. tenuipes – D. tenuiphyllum – D. tenuis – D. tequendamensis – D. ternata – D. theresensis – D. therezopolensis – D. togoensis – D. tokoro – D. toldosensis – D. tomentosa – D. torticaulis – D. trachyandra – D. trachycarpa – D. traillii – D. transversa – D. triandria – D. trichantha – D. trichanthera – D. trifida – D. trifoliata – D. trifurcata – D. trilinguis – D. trimenii – D. trinervia – D. trisecta – D. trollii – D. truncata – D. tsaratananensis – D. tubiperianthia – D. tubuliflora – D. tubulosa
U

D. uliginosa – D. ulinei – D. urceolata – D. urophylla – D. uruapanensis
V

D. valdiviensis – D. vanvuurenii – D. variifolia – D. velutipes – D. vexans – D. vilis – D. villosa – D. volckmannii
W

D. wallichii – D. warburgiana – D. warmingii – D. wattii – D. weberbaueri – D. widgrenii – D. wightii – D. wittiana – D. wrightii
X

D. xizangensis
Y

D. yunnanensis
Z

D. zentaroana – D. zingiberensis
Source(s) of checklist:

Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Dioscorea in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Mar 13. Reference page.

Name

Dioscorea Plum. ex L., Sp. Pl.: 1032. 1753.
Type species: Dioscorea villosa L., Sp. Pl.: 1033 (1753)

Synonymy

Heterotypic
Tamus L., Sp. Pl.: 1028 (1753)
Ricophora Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4: s.p. (1754)
Tamnus Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4: s.p. (1754)
Oncus Lour., Fl. Cochinch.: 194 (1790)
Ubium J.F.Gmel., Syst. Nat. 2: 839 (1791)
Oncorhiza Pers., Syn. Pl. 1: 374 (1805)
Testudinaria Salisb. ex Burch., Trav. S. Africa 2: 147 (1824)
Rhizemys Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 26 (1838)
Botryosicyos Hochst., Flora 27(Beil.): 3 (1844)
Helmia Kunth, Enum. Pl. 5: 414 (1850)
Sismondaea Delponte, Mem. Reale Accad. Sci. Torino, II, 14: 394 (1854)
Epipetrum Phil., Linnaea 33: 253 (1865)
Borderea Miégev., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 13: 374 (1866)
Elephantodon Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 12 (1866)
Hamatris Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 11 (1866)
Merione Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 12 (1866)
Polynome Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 12 (1866)
Strophis Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 12 (1866)
Higinbothamia Uline, Publ. Field Columb. Mus., Bot. Ser. 1: 414 (1899)
Peripetasma Ridl., J. Bot. 58(690): 147. 1920.
Type species: Peripetasma polyanthum Ridl., J. Bot. 58(690): 147. 1920.
Nanarepenta Matuda, Anales Inst. Biol. Univ. Nac. México 32: 143 (1962)
Hyperocarpa (Uline) G.M.Barroso, E.F.Guim. & Sucre, Sellowia 25: 19 (1974)

References

Plum. ex
Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species plantarum, exhibentes plantas rite cognitas, ad genera relatas, cum differentiis specificis, nominibus trivialibus, synonymis selectis, locis natalibus, secundum systema sexuale digestas. Tomus II. Pp. 561–1200, [1–30, index], [1, err.]. Impensis Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae [Stockholm]. BHL Reference page. : 1032.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Dioscorea in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Mar 13. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Dioscorea in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Mar 13. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2020. Dioscorea. Published online. Accessed: Mar 13 2020.
Tropicos.org 2020. Dioscorea. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Mar 13.
Flora Europaea: Dioscorea
Flora of China: Dioscorea
Flora of North America: Dioscorea
Flora of Pakistan: Dioscorea
USDA Plant Profile: Dioscorea

Vernacular names
Akan: Bayerɛ
bamanankan: Ku
català: Nyam
dansk: Yams
Deutsch: Yams
eʋegbe: Te
Ελληνικά: Γιαμ
English: Yam
Esperanto: Ignamo
suomi: Jamssit
français: Igname
Kreyòl ayisyen: Yanm
magyar: Jamsz, jam, jamszgyökér
italiano: Igname
日本語: ヤム
lietuvių: Dioskorėja
Nederlands: Yam
polski: Pochrzyn
português: Inhame
русский: Ямс
සිංහල: කොඩොල්
Bân-lâm-gú: Soaⁿ-io̍h

Dioscorea is a genus of over 600 species of flowering plants in the family Dioscoreaceae, native throughout the tropical and warm temperate regions of the world. The vast majority of the species are tropical, with only a few species extending into temperate climates.[3][4][5][6] It was named by the monk Charles Plumier after the ancient Greek physician and botanist Dioscorides.

Description

They are tuberous herbaceous perennial lianas, growing to 2–12 metres (6.6–39.4 ft) or more tall. The leaves are spirally arranged, mostly broad heart-shaped. The flowers are individually inconspicuous, greenish-yellow, with six petals; they are mostly dioecious, with separate male and female plants, though a few species are monoecious, with male and female flowers on the same plant. The fruit is a capsule in most species, a soft berry in a few species.[7][8]
Cultivation and uses

Several species, known as yams, are important agricultural crops in tropical regions, grown for their large tubers. Many of these are toxic when fresh, but can be detoxified and eaten, and are particularly important in parts of Africa, Asia, and Oceania (see yam article).

One class of toxins found in many species is steroidal saponins, which can be converted through a series of chemical reactions into steroid hormones for use in medicine and as contraceptives.

The 1889 book "The Useful Native Plants of Australia" records that Dioscorea hastifolia is "One of the hardiest of the yams. The tubers are largely consumed by the local aborigines for food. (Mueller)."[9]
Accepted species (613), subspecies, and varieties

This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: May be more useful to arrange by section, however unreliable molecularly they can be. Please help improve this section if you can. (October 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The genus includes the following species and subspecies:
A

Dioscorea abysmophila Maguire & Steyerm.
Dioscorea abyssinica Hochst. ex Kunth
Dioscorea acanthogene Rusby
Dioscorea acerifolia Phil.
Dioscorea acuminata Baker
Dioscorea adenantha Uline
Dioscorea aesculifolia R.Knuth
Dioscorea aguilarii Standl. & Steyerm.
Dioscorea alata L.
Dioscorea alatipes Burkill & H.Perrier
Dioscorea althaeoides R.Knuth
Dioscorea altissima Lam.
Dioscorea amaranthoides C.Presl
Dioscorea amazonum Mart. ex Griseb.
Dioscorea amazonum var. klugii (R.Knuth) Ayala
Dioscorea amoena R.Knuth
Dioscorea analalavensis Jum. & H.Perrier
Dioscorea ancachsensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea andina Phil.
Dioscorea andromedusae O.Téllez
Dioscorea angustifolia Rusby
Dioscorea anomala Griseb.
Dioscorea antaly Jum. & H.Perrier
Dioscorea antucoana Uline ex R.Knuth
Dioscorea arachidna Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea araucana Phil.
Dioscorea arcuatinervis Hochr.
Dioscorea argyrogyna Uline ex R.Knuth
Dioscorea arifolia C.Presl
Dioscorea aristolochiifolia Poepp.
Dioscorea arnensis R. Knuth
Dioscorea asclepiadea Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea aspera Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
Dioscorea aspersa Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea asperula Pedralli
Dioscorea asteriscus Burkill
Dioscorea atrescens R.Knuth
Dioscorea auriculata Poepp.

B

Dioscorea bahiensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea bako Wilkin
Dioscorea balcanica Košanin
Dioscorea bancana Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea banzhuana S.J.Pei & C.T.Ting
Dioscorea bartlettii C.V.Morton
Dioscorea basiclavicaulis Rizzini & A.Mattos
Dioscorea baya De Wild.
Dioscorea beecheyi R.Knuth
Dioscorea belophylla (Prain) Voigt ex Haines
Dioscorea bemandry Jum. & H.Perrier
Dioscorea bemarivensis Jum. & H.Perrier
Dioscorea benthamii Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea berenicea McVaugh
Dioscorea bermejensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea bernoulliana Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea besseriana Kunth
Dioscorea beyrichii R.Knuth
Dioscorea bicolor Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea biformifolia S.J.Pei & C.T.Ting
Dioscorea biloba (Phil.) Caddick & Wilkin
Dioscorea biplicata R.Knuth
Dioscorea birmanica Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea birschelii Harms ex R.Knuth
Dioscorea blumei Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea bolivarensis Steyerm.
Dioscorea bonii Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea bosseri Haigh & Wilkin
Dioscorea brachybotrya Poepp.
Dioscorea brachystachya Phil.
Dioscorea bradei R.Knuth
Dioscorea brandisii Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea brevipetiolata Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea bridgesii Griseb. ex Kunth
Dioscorea brownii Schinz
Dioscorea bryoniifolia Poepp.
Dioscorea buchananii Benth.
Dioscorea buckleyana Wilkin
Dioscorea bulbifera L.
Dioscorea bulbotricha Hand.-Mazz.
Dioscorea burchellii Baker
Dioscorea burkilliana J.Miège

C

Dioscorea cachipuertensis Ayala
Dioscorea calcicola Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea caldasensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea calderillensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea callacatensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea cambodiana Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea campanulata Uline ex R.Knuth
Dioscorea campestris Griseb.
Dioscorea campos-portoi R.Knuth
Dioscorea carionis Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea carpomaculata O.Téllez & B.G.Schub.
Dioscorea carpomaculata var. cinerea (Uline ex R.Knuth) O.Téllez & B.G.Schub.
Dioscorea castilloniana Hauman
Dioscorea catharinensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea caucasica Lipsky
Dioscorea cavenensis Lam.
Dioscorea cayennensis Lam.
Dioscorea cayennensis subsp. rotundata (Poir.) J.Miège; syn.: D. rotundata Poir.
Dioscorea ceratandra Uline ex R.Knuth
Dioscorea chacoensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea chagllaensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea chancayensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea chaponensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea chiapasensis Matuda
Dioscorea chimborazensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea chingii Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea choriandra Uline ex R.Knuth
Dioscorea chouardii Gaussen
Dioscorea cienegensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea cinnamomifolia Hook.
Dioscorea cirrhosa Lour.
Dioscorea cissophylla Phil.
Dioscorea claessensii De Wild.
Dioscorea claussenii Uline ex R.Knuth
Dioscorea claytonii Ayala
Dioscorea cochleariapiculata De Wild.
Dioscorea collettii Hook.f.
Dioscorea collettii var. hypoglauca (Palib.) S.J.Pei & C.T.Ting
Dioscorea communis (L.) Caddick & Wilkin
Dioscorea commutata R.Knuth
Dioscorea comorensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea composita Hemsl.
Dioscorea contracta R.Knuth
Dioscorea convolvulacea Cham. & Schltdl.
Dioscorea convolvulacea subsp. grandifolia (Schltdl.) Uline ex R.Knuth
Dioscorea conzattii R.Knuth
Dioscorea cordifolia Laness.
Dioscorea coreana (Prain & Burkill) R.Knuth
Dioscorea coriacea Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
Dioscorea coripatenis J.F.Macbr.
Dioscorea coronata Hauman
Dioscorea cotinifolia Kunth
Dioscorea craibiana Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea crateriflora R.Knuth
Dioscorea crotalariifolia Uline
Dioscorea cruzensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea cubensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea cumingii Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea curitybensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea cuspidata Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
Dioscorea cuyabensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea cyanisticta J.D.Sm.
Dioscorea cymosula Hemsl.
Dioscorea cyphocarpa C.B.Rob. ex Knuth

D

Dioscorea daunea Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea davidsei O.Téllez
Dioscorea de-mourae Uline ex R.Knuth
Dioscorea debilis Uline ex R.Knuth
Dioscorea decaryana H.Perrier
Dioscorea decipiens Hook.f.
Dioscorea decorticans C.Presl
Dioscorea deflexa Griseb.
Dioscorea delavayi Franch.
Dioscorea delicata R.Knuth
Dioscorea deltoidea Wall. ex Griseb.
Dioscorea dendrotricha Uline
Dioscorea densiflora Hemsl.
Dioscorea depauperata Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea diamantinensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea dicranandra Donn.Sm.
Dioscorea dielsii R.Knuth
Dioscorea dissimulans Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea divaricata Blanco
Dioscorea diversifolia Griseb.
Dioscorea dodecaneura Vell.
Dioscorea dregeana (Kunth) T.Durand & Schinz
Dioscorea duchassaingii R.Knuth
Dioscorea dugesii C.B.Rob.
Dioscorea dumetorum (Kunth) Pax
Dioscorea dumetosa Uline ex R.Knuth

E

Dioscorea ekmanii R.Knuth
Dioscorea elegans Ridl. ex Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea elephantipes (L'Hér.) Engl.
Dioscorea entomophila Hauman
Dioscorea epistephioides Taub.
Dioscorea escuintlensis Matuda
Dioscorea esculenta (Lour.) Burkill
Dioscorea esquirolii Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea exalata C.T.Ting & M.C.Chang

F

Dioscorea fandra H.Perrier
Dioscorea fasciculocongesta (Sosa & B.G.Schub.) O.Téllez
Dioscorea fastigiata Gay
Dioscorea fendleri R.Knuth
Dioscorea ferreyrae Ayala
Dioscorea filiformis Blume
Dioscorea flabellifolia Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea flaccida R.Knuth
Dioscorea floribunda M.Martens & Galeotti
Dioscorea floridana Bartlett
Dioscorea fodinarum Kunth
Dioscorea fordii Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea formosana R.Knuth
Dioscorea fractiflexa R.Knuth
Dioscorea fuliginosa R.Knuth
Dioscorea furcata Griseb.
Dioscorea futschauensis Uline ex R.Knuth

G

Dioscorea galeottiana Kunth
Dioscorea galiiflora R.Knuth
Dioscorea gallegosi Matuda
Dioscorea garrettii Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea gaumeri R.Knuth
Dioscorea gentryi O.Téllez
Dioscorea gillettii Milne-Redh.
Dioscorea glabra Roxb.
Dioscorea glandulosa (Griseb.) Klotzsch ex Kunth
Dioscorea glandulosa var. calcensis (R.Knuth) Ayala
Dioscorea glomerulata Hauman
Dioscorea gomez-pompae O.Téllez
Dioscorea gracilicaulis R.Knuth
Dioscorea gracilipes Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea gracilis Hook. ex Poepp.
Dioscorea gracillima Miq.
Dioscorea grandiflora Mart. ex Griseb.
Dioscorea grandis R.Knuth
Dioscorea grata Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea gribinguiensis Baudon
Dioscorea grisebachii Kunth
Dioscorea guerrerensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea guianensis R.Knuth

H

Dioscorea haenkeana C.Presl
Dioscorea hamiltonii Hook.f.
Dioscorea hassleriana Chodat
Dioscorea hastata Mill.
Dioscorea hastatissima Rusby
Dioscorea hastifolia Nees
Dioscorea hastiformis R.Knuth
Dioscorea haumanii Xifreda
Dioscorea havilandii Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea hebridensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea hemicrypta Burkill
Dioscorea hemsleyi Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea heptaneura Vell.
Dioscorea herbert-smithii Rusby
Dioscorea herzogii R.Knuth
Dioscorea heteropoda Baker
Dioscorea hexagona Baker
Dioscorea hieronymi Uline ex R.Knuth
Dioscorea hintonii R.Knuth
Dioscorea hirtiflora Benth.
Dioscorea hirtiflora subsp. orientalis Milne-Redh.
Dioscorea hispida Dennst.
Dioscorea holmioidea Maury
Dioscorea hombuka H.Perrier
Dioscorea hondurensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea howardiana O.Téllez, B.G.Schub. & Geeta
Dioscorea humifusa Poepp.
Dioscorea humilis Bertero ex Colla
Dioscorea humilis subsp. polyanthes (F.Phil.) Viruel, Segarra & Villar
Dioscorea hunzikeri Xifreda

I

Dioscorea igualamontana Matuda
Dioscorea incayensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea inopinata Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea insignis C.V.Morton & B.G.Schub.
Dioscorea intermedia Thwaites
Dioscorea ionophylla Uline ex R.Knuth
Dioscorea iquitosensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea irupanensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea itapirensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea itatiensis R.Knuth

J

Dioscorea jaliscana S.Watson
Dioscorea jamesonii R.Knuth
Dioscorea japonica Thunb. - Shan yao in Chinese (Chinese: 山药; pinyin: Shān yào)
Dioscorea javariensis Ayala
Dioscorea juxtlahuacensis (O.Téllez & Dávila) Caddick & Wilkin

K

Dioscorea kalkapershadii Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea kamoonensis Kunth
Dioscorea keduensis Burkill ex Backer
Dioscorea kerrii Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea killipii R.Knuth
Dioscorea kimiae Wilkin
Dioscorea kingii R.Knuth
Dioscorea kituiensis Wilkin & Muasya
Dioscorea kjellbergii R.Knuth
Dioscorea knuthiana De Wild.
Dioscorea koepperi Standl.
Dioscorea koyamae Jayas.
Dioscorea kratica Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea kunthiana Uline
Dioscorea kuntzei Uline ex Kuntze

L

Dioscorea lacerdaei Griseb.
Dioscorea laevis Uline
Dioscorea lamprocaula Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea lanata Bail
Dioscorea larecajensis Uline ex R.Knuth
Dioscorea laurifolia Wall. ex Hook.f.
Dioscorea lawrancei R.Knuth
Dioscorea laxiflora Mart. ex Griseb.
Dioscorea lehmannii Uline
Dioscorea lepcharum Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea lepida C.V.Morton
Dioscorea leptobotrys Uline ex R.Knuth
Dioscorea liebmannii Uline
Dioscorea lijiangensis C.L.Long & H.Li
Dioscorea linearicordata Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea lisae Dorr & Stergios
Dioscorea listeri Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea litoralis Phil.
Dioscorea loefgrenii R.Knuth
Dioscorea loheri Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea longicuspis R.Knuth
Dioscorea longipes Phil.
Dioscorea longirhiza Caddick & Wilkin
Dioscorea longituba Uline
Dioscorea lundii Uline ex R.Knuth
Dioscorea luzonensis Schauer

M

Dioscorea macbrideana R.Knuth
Dioscorea maciba Jum. & H.Perrier
Dioscorea macrantha Uline ex R.Knuth
Dioscorea macrothyrsa Uline
Dioscorea macvaughii B.G.Schub.
Dioscorea madecassa H.Perrier
Dioscorea madiunensis Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea maianthemoides Uline ex R.Knuth
Dioscorea mamillata Jum. & H.Perrier
Dioscorea mandonii Rusby
Dioscorea mangenotiana J.Miège
Dioscorea mantigueirensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea margarethia G.M.Barroso, E.F.Guim. & Sucre
Dioscorea marginata Griseb.
Dioscorea martensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea martiana Griseb.
Dioscorea martini Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea matagalpensis Uline
Dioscorea matudae O.Téllez & B.G.Schub.
Dioscorea mayottensis Wilkin
Dioscorea megacarpa Gleason
Dioscorea megalantha Griseb.
Dioscorea melanophyma Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea melastomatifolia Uline ex Prain
Dioscorea membranacea Pierre ex Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea menglaensis H.Li
Dioscorea meridensis Kunth
Dioscorea merrillii Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea mesoamericana O.Téllez & Mart.-Rodr.
Dioscorea mexicana Scheidw.
Dioscorea microbotrya Griseb.
Dioscorea microcephala Uline
Dioscorea microura R.Knuth
Dioscorea mindanaensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea minima C.B.Rob. & Seaton
Dioscorea minutiflora Engl.
Dioscorea mitis C.V.Morton
Dioscorea mitoensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea modesta Phil.
Dioscorea mollis Kunth
Dioscorea monadelpha (Kunth) Griseb.
Dioscorea × monandra Hauman
Dioscorea morelosana (Uline) Matuda
Dioscorea moritziana (Kunth) R.Knuth
Dioscorea mosqueirensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea moultonii Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea moyobambensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea mucronata Uline ex R.Knuth
Dioscorea multiflora Mart. ex Griseb.
Dioscorea multiloba Kunth
Dioscorea multinervis Benth.
Dioscorea mundii Baker

N

Dioscorea nako H.Perrier
Dioscorea namorokensis Wilkin
Dioscorea nana Poepp.
Dioscorea nanlaensis H.Li
Dioscorea natalensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea natalia Hammel
Dioscorea neblinensis Maguire & Steyerm.
Dioscorea nelsonii Uline ex R.Knuth
Dioscorea nematodes Uline ex R.Knuth
Dioscorea nervata R.Knuth
Dioscorea nervosa Phil.
Dioscorea nicolasensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea nieuwenhuisii Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea nipensis R.A.Howard
Dioscorea nipponica Makino
Dioscorea nitens Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea nuda R.Knuth
Dioscorea nummularia Lam.
Dioscorea nutans R.Knuth

O

Dioscorea oaxacensis Uline
Dioscorea obcuneata Hook.f.
Dioscorea oblonga Gleason
Dioscorea oblongifolia Rusby
Dioscorea obtusifolia Hook. & Arn.
Dioscorea olfersiana Klotzsch ex Griseb.
Dioscorea oligophylla Phil.
Dioscorea omiltemensis O.Téllez
Dioscorea opaca R.Knuth
Dioscorea oppositiflora Griseb.
Dioscorea oppositifolia L. - Shan yao in Chinese (Chinese: 山药; pinyin: Shān yào)
Dioscorea orangeana Wilkin[10]
Dioscorea orbiculata Hook.f.
Dioscorea orbiculata var. tenuifolia (Ridl.) Thapyai
Dioscorea oreodoxa B.G.Schub.
Dioscorea organensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea orientalis (J.Thiébaut) Caddick & Wilkin
Dioscorea orizabensis Uline
Dioscorea orthogoneura Uline ex Hochr.
Dioscorea oryzetorum Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea ovalifolia R.Knuth
Dioscorea ovata Vell.
Dioscorea ovinala Baker

P

Dioscorea palawana Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea paleata Burkill
Dioscorea pallens Schltdl.
Dioscorea pallidinervia R.Knuth
Dioscorea palmeri R.Knuth
Dioscorea panamensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea panthaica Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea pantojensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea paradoxa Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea pavonii Uline ex R.Knuth
Dioscorea pedicellata Phil.
Dioscorea pencana Phil.
Dioscorea pendula Poepp. ex Kunth
Dioscorea pentaphylla L.
Dioscorea peperoides Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea perdicum Taub.
Dioscorea perenensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea perpilosa H.Perrier
Dioscorea petelotii Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea philippiana Uline ex R.Knuth
Dioscorea piauhyensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea pierrei Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea pilcomayensis Hauman
Dioscorea pilgeriana R.Knuth
Dioscorea pilosiuscula Bertero ex Spreng.
Dioscorea pinedensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea piperifolia Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
Dioscorea piscatorum Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea pittieri R.Knuth
Dioscorea planistipulosa Uline ex R.Knuth
Dioscorea plantaginifolia R.Knuth
Dioscorea platycarpa Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea platycolpota Uline ex B.L.Rob.
Dioscorea plumifera C.B.Rob.
Dioscorea pohlii Griseb.
Dioscorea pohlii var. luschnathiana (Kunth) Uline ex R.Knuth
Dioscorea poilanei Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea polyclados Hook.f.
Dioscorea polygonoides Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
Dioscorea polystachya Turcz. (also: Dioscorea batatas Decne)
Dioscorea pomeroonensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea potarensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea praehensilis Benth.
Dioscorea prainiana R.Knuth
Dioscorea prazeri Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea preslii Steud.
Dioscorea preussii Pax
Dioscorea preussii subsp. hylophila (Harms) Wilkin
Dioscorea pringlei C.B.Rob.
Dioscorea proteiformis H.Perrier
Dioscorea psammophila R.Knuth
Dioscorea pseudomacrocapsa G.M.Barroso, E.F.Guim. & Sucre
Dioscorea pseudorajanioides R.Knuth
Dioscorea pseudotomentosa Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea pteropoda Boivin ex H.Perrier
Dioscorea pubera Blume
Dioscorea pubescens Poir.
Dioscorea pumicicola Uline
Dioscorea pumilio Griseb.
Dioscorea puncticulata R.Knuth
Dioscorea purdiei R.Knuth
Dioscorea putisensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea putumayensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea pynaertii De Wild.
Dioscorea pyrenaica Bubani & Bordère ex Gren.
Dioscorea pyrifolia Kunth

Q

Dioscorea quartiniana A.Rich.
Dioscorea quaternata J.F. Gmel.
Dioscorea quinquelobata Thunb.
Dioscorea quispicanchensis R.Knuth

R

Dioscorea racemosa (Klotzsch) Uline
Dioscorea regnellii Uline ex R.Knuth
Dioscorea remota C.V.Morton
Dioscorea remotiflora Kunth
Dioscorea reticulata Gay
Dioscorea retusa Mast.
Dioscorea reversiflora Uline
Dioscorea ridleyi Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea riedelii R.Knuth
Dioscorea rigida R.Knuth
Dioscorea rimbachii R.Knuth
Dioscorea rockii Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea rosei R.Knuth
Dioscorea rumicoides Griseb.
Dioscorea rupicola Kunth
Dioscorea rusbyi Uline

S

Dioscorea sabarensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea sagittata Poir.
Dioscorea sagittifolia Pax
Dioscorea sagittifolia var. lecardii (De Wild.) Nkounkou
Dioscorea salicifolia Blume
Dioscorea salvadorensis Standl.
Dioscorea sambiranensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea sanchez-colini Matuda
Dioscorea sandiensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea sandwithii B.G.Schub.
Dioscorea sanpaulensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea sansibarensis Pax
Dioscorea santanderensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea santosensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea sarasinii Uline ex R.Knuth
Dioscorea saxatilis Poepp.
Dioscorea scabra Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
Dioscorea schimperiana Hochst. ex Kunth
Dioscorea schubertiae Ayala
Dioscorea schunkei Ayala & T.Clayton
Dioscorea schwackei Uline ex R.Knuth
Dioscorea scortechinii Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea secunda R.Knuth
Dioscorea sellowiana Uline ex R.Knuth
Dioscorea semperflorens Uline
Dioscorea septemloba Thunb.
Dioscorea septemnervis Vell.
Dioscorea sericea R.Knuth
Dioscorea seriflora Jum. & H.Perrier
Dioscorea serpenticola Hoque & P.K.Mukh.
Dioscorea sessiliflora McVaugh
Dioscorea sexrimata Burkill
Dioscorea simulans Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea sincorensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea sinoparviflora C.T.Ting, M.G.Gilbert & Turland
Dioscorea sinuata Vell.
Dioscorea sitamiana Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea skottsbergii R.Knuth
Dioscorea smilacifolia De Wild. & T.Durand
Dioscorea sonlaensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea sororopana Steyerm.
Dioscorea soso Jum. & H.Perrier
Dioscorea soso var. trichopoda (Jum. & H.Perrier) Burkill & H.Perrier
Dioscorea spectabilis R.Knuth
Dioscorea spicata Roth
Dioscorea spiculiflora Hemsl.
Dioscorea spiculoides Matuda
Dioscorea spongiosa J.Q.Xi, M.Mizuno & W.L.Zhao
Dioscorea sprucei Uline ex R.Knuth
Dioscorea standleyi C.V.Morton
Dioscorea stegelmanniana R.Knuth
Dioscorea stellaris R.Knuth
Dioscorea stemonoides Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea stenocolpus Phil.
Dioscorea stenomeriflora Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea stenopetala Hauman
Dioscorea stenophylla Uline
Dioscorea sterilis O.Weber & Wilkin
Dioscorea stipulosa Uline ex R.Knuth
Dioscorea subcalva Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea subhastata Vell.
Dioscorea sublignosa R.Knuth
Dioscorea submigra R.Knuth
Dioscorea subtomentosa Miranda
Dioscorea sumatrana Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea sumiderensis B.G.Schub. & O.Téllez
Dioscorea suratensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea sylvatica Eckl.
Dioscorea synandra Uline
Dioscorea syringifolia (Kunth) Kunth & R.H.Schomb. ex R.Knuth

T

Dioscorea tabatae Hatus. ex Yamashita & M.N.Tamura
Dioscorea tacanensis Lundell
Dioscorea tamarisciflora Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea tamoidea Griseb.
Dioscorea tamshiyacuensis Ayala
Dioscorea tancitarensis Matuda
Dioscorea tarijensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea tarmensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea tauriglossum R.Knuth
Dioscorea tayacajensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea temascaltepecensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea tenebrosa C.V.Morton
Dioscorea tenella Phil.
Dioscorea tentaculigera Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea tenuipes Franch. & Sav.
Dioscorea tenuiphyllum R.Knuth
Dioscorea tenuis R.Knuth
Dioscorea tequendamensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea ternata Griseb.
Dioscorea therezopolensis Uline ex R.Knuth
Dioscorea togoensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea tokoro Makino ex Miyabe
Dioscorea toldosensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea tomentosa J.Koenig ex Spreng.
Dioscorea torticaulis R.Knuth
Dioscorea trachyandra Griseb.
Dioscorea trachycarpa Kunth
Dioscorea traillii R.Knuth
Dioscorea transversa R.Br.
Dioscorea triandria Sessé & Moc.
Dioscorea trichantha Baker
Dioscorea trichanthera Gleason
Dioscorea trifida L.f.
Dioscorea trifoliata Kunth
Dioscorea trifurcata Hauman
Dioscorea trilinguis Griseb.
Dioscorea trimenii Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea trinervia Roxb. ex Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea trisecta Griseb.
Dioscorea trollii R.Knuth
Dioscorea truncata Miq.
Dioscorea tsaratananensis H.Perrier
Dioscorea tubiperianthia Matuda
Dioscorea tubuliflora Uline ex R.Knuth
Dioscorea tubulosa Griseb.

U

Dioscorea uliginosa Phil.
Dioscorea ulinei Greenm. ex R.Knuth
Dioscorea undatiloba Baker
Dioscorea urceolata Uline
Dioscorea urophylla Hemsl.
Dioscorea uruapanensis Matuda

V

Dioscorea valdiviensis R.Knuth
Dioscorea vanvuurenii Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea variifolia Bertero
Dioscorea velutipes Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea vexans Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea vilis Kunth
Dioscorea villosa L.
Dioscorea volckmannii Phil.

W

Dioscorea wallichii Hook.f.
Dioscorea warburgiana Uline ex Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea warmingii R.Knuth
Dioscorea wattii Prain & Burkill
Dioscorea weberbaueri R.Knuth
Dioscorea widgrenii R.Knuth
Dioscorea wightii Hook.f.
Dioscorea wittiana R.Knuth
Dioscorea wrightii Uline ex R.Knuth

X

Dioscorea xizangensis C.T.Ting

Y

Dioscorea yunnanensis Prain & Burkill

Z

Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H.Wright

The closely related genus Tamus is included in Dioscorea by some sources,[11] but is maintained as distinct by others.[12] For Dioscorea communis (L.) Caddick & Wilkin, see Tamus communis.
See also

Yams
Mexican barbasco trade

References

Couto, Ricardo S; Martins, Aline C; Bolson, Mônica; Lopes, Rosana C; Smidt, Eric C; Braga, João Marcelo A (28 September 2018). "Time calibrated tree of Dioscorea (Dioscoreaceae) indicates four origins of yams in the Neotropics since the Eocene". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 188 (2): 144–160. doi:10.1093/botlinnean/boy052.
"Name - Dioscorea L. (Subgeneric subordinate taxa)". legacy.tropicos.org.
"World Checklist of Selected Plant Families: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew". apps.kew.org. Retrieved 2017-01-23.
Govaerts, R., Wilkin, P. & Saunders, R.M.K. (2007). World Checklist of Dioscoreales. Yams and their allies: 1-65. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Wilkin, P. & Thapyai, C. (2009). Flora of Thailand 10(1): 1-140. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
"Dioscorea communis [Tamaro]". luirig.altervista.org (in Italian). Retrieved 2017-01-23.
"Dioscorea in Flora of North America @ efloras.org". www.efloras.org. Retrieved 2017-01-23.
"Dioscorea in Flora of China @ efloras.org". www.efloras.org. Retrieved 2017-01-23.
J. H. Maiden (1889). The useful native plants of Australia : Including Tasmania. Turner and Henderson, Sydney.
Wilkin, Paul; Annette Hladik; Odile Weber; Claude Marcel Hladik; Vololoniana Jeannoda (September 2009). "Dioscorea orangeana (Dioscoreaceae), a new and threatened species of edible yam from northern Madagascar" (PDF). Kew Bulletin. 64 (3): 461–468. doi:10.1007/s12225-009-9126-2. ISSN 1874-933X. S2CID 43183514.
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, retrieved 2011-05-28, search for "Tamus"
Stace, Clive (2010), New Flora of the British Isles (3rd ed.), Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-70772-5, p. 854

Plants Images

Biology Encyclopedia

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/"
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

Home - Hellenica World