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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Liliales

Familia: Liliaceae
Subfamilia: Lilioideae
Genus: Gagea
Species: G. alexeenkoana – G. apulica – G. bithynica – G. bohemica – G. bulbifera – G. caelestis – G. calantha – G. chanae – G. chlorantha – G. chomutovae – G. chrysantha – G. commutata – G. confusa – G. dschungarica – G. dubia – G. elliptica – G. fibrosa – G. fistulosa – G. foliosa – G. gageoides – G. germainae – G. glacialis – G. goekyigitii – G. graeca – G. granatellii – G. helenae – G. joannis – G. juliae – G. libanotica – G. liotardii – G. ×luberonensis – G. lutea – G. luteoides – G. minima – G. moniliformis – G. nevadensis – G. noltiei – G. omalensis – G. pauciflora – G. pedata – G. peduncularis – G. peruzzii – G. polidorii – G. popovii – G. pratensis – G. pusilla – G. reticulata – G. rigida – G. sivasica – G. soleirolii – G. spathacea – G. taurica – G. tenera – G. tenuissima – G. tisoniana – G. transversalis – G. ugamica – G. uliginosa – G. villosa – G. vvedenskyi
Name

Gagea Salisb.
Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Europe
Northern Europe
Denmark, Finland, Great Britain, Norway, Sweden,
Middle Europe
Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland,
Southwestern Europe
Baleares, Corse, France, Portugal, Sardegna, Spain,
Southeastern Europe
Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Kriti, Romania, Sicilia, Turkey-in-Europe, Yugoslavia,
Eastern Europe
Belarus, Baltic States, Krym, Central European Russia, East European Russia, North European Russia, South European Russia, Northwest European Russia, Ukraine,
Africa
Northern Africa
Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia,
Asia-Temperate
Siberia
Altay, Buryatiya, Chita, Irkutsk Krasnoyarsk, Tuva, West Siberia, Yakutiya,
Russian Far East
Amur, Kamchatka, Khabarovsk, Kuril Islands, Magadan, Primorye, Sakhalin,
Middle Asia
Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Turkmenistan, Tadzhikistan, Uzbekistan,
Caucasus
Afghanistan, Iran, North Caucasus, Transcaucasus,
Western Asia
Afghanistan, Cyprus, East Aegean Islands, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon-Syria, Palestine, Sinai, Turkey,
Arabian Peninsula
Kuwait, Saudi Arabia,
China
China South-Central, Inner Mongolia, Manchuria, China North-Central, Qinghai, Tibet, Xinjiang,
Mongolia
Mongolia,
Eastern Asia
Japan, Korea,
Asia-Tropical
Indian Subcontinent
Assam, East Himalaya, Nepal, Pakistan, West Himalaya,
Northern America
Subarctic America
Aleutian Islands, Alaska, Northwest Territories, Yukon,
Western Canada
British Columbia,
Northwestern U.S.A.
Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming,
Southwestern U.S.A.
Nevada, Utah,
South-Central U.S.A.
New Mexico,

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
Vernacular names
башҡортса: Ҡаҙ йыуаһы
беларуская: Гусіная цыбуля
čeština: křivatec
dansk: Guldstjerne
Deutsch: Gelbsterne
eesti: Kuldtäht
فارسی: نجم طلایی
suomi: Käenrieskat
français: Gagée
עברית: זהבית
hornjoserbsce: Zaznička
magyar: Tyúktaréj
հայերեն: Սագասոխուկ
日本語: キバナノアマナ属
ქართული: ჩიტისთავა
қазақша: Қазжуа
lietuvių: Vištapienė
latviešu: zeltstarītes
македонски: Гејџеа
Nederlands: Geelster
norsk: Gullstjerneslekta
Ирон: Хъазы хъæдындз
polski: Złoć
русский: Гусиный лук
slovenčina: krivec
svenska: Vårlökssläktet
українська: Зірочки
中文: 顶冰花属

Gagea is a large genus of spring flowers in the lily family.[2] It is found primarily in Eurasia with a few species extending into North Africa and North America.[1][3][4][5][6][7]

The genus is named after the English naturalist Sir Thomas Gage (1791-1820). They were originally described as species of Ornithogalum, which, together with the usual yellow colour of the flowers, explains the English name yellow star-of-Bethlehem for the common European species, Gagea lutea.[8][1]

Species

As of January 2014, the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families recognizes over 200 species, including those previously assigned to Lloydia.[9]

Gagea afghanica A.Terracc. – Iran, Afghanistan, Central Asia
Gagea aipetriensis Levichev – Crimea
Gagea alashanica Y.Z.Zhao & L.Q.Zhao – Inner Mongolia
Gagea alberti Regel – Xinjiang, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
Gagea alexeenkoana Miscz. – Turkey, Iran, Caucasus
Gagea alexejana Kamelin ex Levichev – Tajikistan
Gagea alexii Ali & Levichev – Tajikistan, Iran, Pakistan
Gagea algeriensis (Chabert) Chabert ex Batt. – Spain, Morocco, Algeria
Gagea alii Levichev – Pakistan
Gagea altaica Schischk. & Sumnev. – Xinjiang, Kazakhstan, Siberia
Gagea amblyopetala Boiss. & Heldr. – southeastern Europe
Gagea ancestralis Levichev – Altay Krai
Gagea angelae Levichev & Schnittler – Xinjiang
Gagea angrenica Levichev – Tajikistan
Gagea anisopoda Popov – Turkmenistan
Gagea artemczukii Krasnova – Ukraine, Russia (incl Crimea, North Caucasus)
Gagea azutavica Kotukhov – Altay Krai
Gagea baluchistanica Levichev & Ali – Pakistan
Gagea baschkyzylsaica Levichev – Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan
Gagea bashoensis Ali – Pakistan, Kashmir
Gagea bergii Litv. – Iran, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan
Gagea bezengiensis Levichev – North Caucasus
Gagea bithynica Pascher – Turkey
Gagea bohemica (Zauschn.) Schult. & Schult.f. (syn. G. fistulosa) – Early star-of-Bethlehem, Radnor lily – Europe, Mediterranean
Gagea bornmuelleriana Pascher – Iran
Gagea bowes-lyonii Levichev – Pakistan, Kashmir
Gagea brevistolonifera Levichev – Kyrgyzstan
Gagea bulbifera (Pall.) Salisb. – Eurasia from Romania to Xinjiang
Gagea caelestis Levichev – Kyrgyzstan
Gagea calantha Levichev – Uzbekistan
Gagea calcicola Zarrei & Wilkin – Iran
Gagea calyptrifolia Levichev – Kyrgyzstan
Gagea capillifolia Vved. – Iran, Afghanistan, Central Asia
Gagea capusii A.Terracc. – Afghanistan, Central Asia
Gagea caroli-kochii Grossh. – Iran, South Caucasus
Gagea chabertii A.Terracc. – Algeria, Tunisia
Gagea chanae Grossh. – Iran, Turkey, Caucasus
Gagea charadzeae Davlian. – Caucasus
Gagea chinensis Y.Z.Zhao & L.Q.Zhao – Inner Mongolia
Gagea chitralensis S.Dasgupta & D.B.Deb – Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Pakistan
Gagea chlorantha (M.Bieb.) Schult. & Schult.f. – Middle East, Turkmenistan, Caucasus
Gagea chloroneura Rech.f. – Afghanistan
Gagea chomutovae (Pascher) Pascher – Turkey, Caucasus, Iran, Afghanistan, Central Asia
Gagea chrysantha (Jan) Schult. & Schult.f. – Italy incl Sicily
Gagea circumplexa Vved. – Middle East, Central Asia
Gagea commutata K.Koch – Caucasus, Iran
Gagea confusa A.Terracc. – Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Caucasus, Turkmenistan
Gagea cuneata Levichev & Murtaz. – North Caucasus
Gagea czatkalica Levichev – Uzbekistan
Gagea daghestanica Levichev & Murtaz. – North Caucasus
Gagea daqingshanensis L.Q.Zhao & Jie Yang – Inner Mongolia
Gagea davlianidzeae Levichev Kyrgyzstan
Gagea dayana Chodat & Beauverd – Middle East
Gagea delicatula Vved. – Uzbekistan, Tajikistan
Gagea deserticola Levichev – Uzbekistan
Gagea divaricata Regel – Xinjiang, Central Asia
Gagea drummondii Levichev & Ali – Pakistan, Kashmir
Gagea dschungarica Regel – Xinjiang, Central Asia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran
Gagea dubia A.Terracc. – Mediterranean, Iran
Gagea durieui Parl. ex Trab. – Morocco, Algeria, Spain incl Balearic Islands
Gagea eleonorae Levichev – Turkey, Caucasus
Gagea elliptica (A.Terracc.) Prain – Spain, Portugal, Morocco
Gagea exilis Vved. – Iran, Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan
Gagea extremadurensis M.Gut. & F.M.Vázquez – Spain
Gagea fedtschenkoana Pascher – Mongolia, Xinjiang, Kazakhstan, Siberia
Gagea ferganica Levichev – Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan
Gagea fibrosa (Desf.) Schult. & Schult.f. – North Africa
Gagea filiformis (Ledeb.) Kar. & Kir. – Altay Krai, Central Asia, Xinjiang, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Pakistan
Gagea flavonutans (H.Hara) Zarrei & Wilkin – Tibet, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, Assam
Gagea foliosa (C.Presl) Schult. & Schult.f. – France, Italy, Algeria
Gagea gageoides (Zucc.) Vved. – Caucasus, Middle East, Central Asia
Gagea germainae Grossh. – Caucasus
Gagea glacialis K.Koch – Caucasus, Turkey
Gagea glaucescens Levichev – Kyrgyzstan
Gagea goljakovii Levichev – Altay Krai
Gagea gracillima Pamp. – Kashmir
Gagea graeca (L.) Irmsch. – Greece, Turkey, Cyprus, Israel
Gagea graminifolia Vved. – Iran, Afghanistan, Central Asia
Gagea granatellii (Parl.) Parl. – Mediterranean, Black Sea regions
Gagea granulosa Turcz. – Russia, Kazakhstan, Xinjiang, Mongolia
Gagea grey-wilsonii Rech.f. – Iran
Gagea gymnopoda Vved. – Tajikistan, Uzbekistan
Gagea gypsacea Levichev – Tajikistan
Gagea helenae Grossh. – Turkey, Caucasus
Gagea hiensis Pascher – Russia, China, Korea, Mongolia
Gagea hissarica Lipsky – Afghanistan, Central Asia
Gagea humicola Levichev – Uzbekistan
Gagea huochengensis Levichev – Xinjiang
Gagea ignota Levichev – Uzbekistan
Gagea incrustata Vved. – Uzbekistan, Tajikistan
Gagea intercedens Pascher – Iran
Gagea iranica Zarrei & Zarre – Iran
Gagea jaeschkei Pascher – Xinjiang, Central Asia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Western Himalayas
Gagea japonica Pascher – Japan
Gagea jensii Levichev & Schnittler – Xinjiang
Gagea jispensis Ali & Levichev – Western Himalayas
Gagea joannis Grossh. – Turkey, Caucasus
Gagea juliae Pascher – Turkey, Cyprus
Gagea kamelinii Levichev – Uzbekistan
Gagea kneissea J.Thiébaut – Syria
Gagea kopetdagensis Vved. – Turkmenistan
Gagea kunawurensis (Royle) Greuter – central + southwest Asia
Gagea kuraiensis Levichev – Altay Krai
Gagea kuraminica Levichev – Tajikiistan
Gagea lacaitae A.Terracc. – France, Spain, Italy, Algeria, Morocco
Gagea leosii Ali & Levichev – Western Himalayas
Gagea libanotica (Hochst.) Greuter. – Syria, Lebanon, Israel
Gagea liotardii (Sternb.) Schult. & Schult.f. – Eurasia from Spain to Mongolia
Gagea lojaconoi Peruzzi – Sicily, Sardinia, Turkey
Gagea longiscapa Grossh. – Siberia, Prinorye
Gagea ludmilae Levichev – Uzbekistan
Gagea lusitanica A.Terracc. – Spain, Portugal
Gagea lutea (L.) Ker Gawl. – Yellow Star-of-Bethlehem – Eurasia from Spain to Japan
Gagea luteoides Stapf – Caucasus, Middle East
Gagea maeotica Artemczuk – Ukraine, Russia incl North Caucasus
Gagea marchica Henker – Germany
Gagea mauritanica Durieu – France, Italy, Balearic Islands, Algeria
Gagea menitskyi Levichev – Iran, South Caucasus
Gagea mergalahensis Ali & Levichev – Western Himalayas, Pakistan
Gagea michaelis Golosk. – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
Gagea micrantha (Boiss.) Pascher – Lebanon, Syria
Gagea minima (L.) Ker Gawl. – Europe, Caucasus
Gagea minutiflora Regel – Central Asia
Gagea minutissima Vved. – Tajikiistan
Gagea multipedunculifera Levichev – Kyrgyzstan
Gagea nabievii Levichev – Uzbekistan
Gagea nakaiana Kitag. – eastern + central Asia, Himalayas
Gagea neopopovii Golosk. – Kazakhstan, Xinjiang
Gagea nevadensis Boiss. – Spain, Morocco
Gagea noltiei Peruzzi. syn Lloydia delicatula – Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan
Gagea novoascanica Klokov – Ukraine
Gagea olgae Regel – Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Central Asia, Xinjiang
Gagea paedophila Vved. – Tajikiistan, Afghanistan
Gagea pakistanica Levichev & Ali – Western Himalayas, Pakistan
Gagea paniculata Levichev – Uzbekistan
Gagea pauciflora (Turcz. ex Trautv.) Ledeb. – Asiatic Russia, China, Mongolia
Gagea pedata Levichev – Kyrgyzstan
Gagea peduncularis (C.Presl) Pascher – Mediterranean
Gagea podolica Schult. & Schult.f. – Russia, Ukraine
Gagea polymorpha Boiss. – Spain
Gagea popovii Vved. – Central Asia
Gagea praemixta Vved. – Uzbekistan
Gagea pratensis (Pers.) Dumort. – Meadow gagea – Europe, Morocco, Turkey
Gagea pseudominutiflora Levichev – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
Gagea punjabica Levichev & Ali – Western Himalayas, Pakistan
Gagea pusilla (F.W.Schmidt) Sweet – Europe, Kazakhstan
Gagea quasitenuifolia Levichev – Caucasus, Iran, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan
Gagea quettica Levichev & Ali – Pakistan
Gagea ramulosa A.Terracc. – eastern Mediterranean, Black Sea region
Gagea rawalpindica Levichev & Ali – Pakistan
Gagea reinhardii Levichev – Uzbekistan
Gagea reticulata (Pall.) Schult. & Schult.f. SE Europe, N Africa, SW Asia
Gagea reverchonii Degen – Spain
Gagea rigida Boiss. & Spruner – Middle East, eastern Mediterranean
Gagea robusta Zarrei & Wilkin – Iran, Afghanistan
Gagea rubicunda Meinsh. – Russia, Baltic Republics
Gagea rubinae Ali – Pakistan
Gagea rufidula Levichev – Kyrgyzstan
Gagea rupicola Levichev – Uzbekistan
Gagea sarmentosa K.Koch – Caucasus, Iran
Gagea sarysuensis Murz. – Kazakhstan
Gagea schachimardanica Levichev – Uzbekistan
Gagea schugnanica Levichev & Navruzsh. – Tajikistan
Gagea scythica Artemczuk – Russia, Ukraine
Gagea serotina (L.) Ker Gawl. – Arctic + Subarctic Eurasia + North America
Gagea setifolia Baker – Caucasus, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Himalayas, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan
Gagea shmakoviana Levichev – Altay Krai
Gagea sicula Lojac. – Sicily
Gagea siphonantha Rech.f. – Afghanistan
Gagea sivasica Hamzaoglu – Turkey
Gagea soleirolii F.W.Schultz – Spain, France, Portugal, Sardinia
Gagea spathacea (Hayne) Salisb. – Europe
Gagea spumosa Levichev – Pakistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan
Gagea staintonii Rech.f. – Afghanistan, Pakistan
Gagea stepposa L.Z.Shue – Xinjiang
Gagea subtilis Vved. – Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan
Gagea subtrigona J.-M.Tison – Spain, Morocco
Gagea sulfurea Miscz. – Turkey, Caucasus
Gagea tadshikistanica Levichev – Tajikistan
Gagea takhtajanii Levichev – Uzbekistan
Gagea talassica Levichev – Kyrgyzstan
Gagea taschkentica Levichev – Uzbekistan
Gagea taurica Steven – Crimea, North Caucasus
Gagea tenera Pascher – central + southwest Asia, Xinjiang, Himalayas
Gagea tenuissima Miscz. – Caucasus, Turkey
Gagea tesquicola Krasnova – Ukraine
Gagea tisoniana Peruzzi – Italy
Gagea toktogulii Levichev – Kyrgyzstan
Gagea toppinii S.Dasgupta & D.B.Deb – Pakistan
Gagea transversalis (Pall.) Steven – eastern Europe
Gagea triflora (Ledeb.) Schult. & Schult.f. – Russian Far East, Korea, Japan, northeastern China
Gagea trinervia (Viv.) Greuter – Sicily, Libya
Gagea turanica Levichev – South Caucasus, Iran, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
Gagea ucrainica Klokov – Ukraine, Russia, Xinjiang, Mongolia
Gagea ugamica Pavlov – Kazakhstan
Gagea ulazsaica Levichev – Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan
Gagea uliginosa Siehe & Pascher – Iran, Iraq, Turkey
Gagea utriculosa Levichev – Himachal Pradesh
Gagea vaginata Pascher – Kuril Islands, Hokkaido
Gagea vegeta Vved. – Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Caucasus
Gagea villosa (M.Bieb.) Sweet – Field Gagea – Europe, Mediterranean, Middle East
Gagea villosula Vved. – Tajikistan
Gagea vvedenskyi Grossh. – Central Asia, Afghanistan, Pakistan
Gagea wallichii Levichev & Ali – Western Himalaya
Gagea wendelboi Rech.f. – Iran
Gagea xiphoidea Levichev – Altay Krai

References

"Lloydia". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2014-01-09.
Salisbury, Richard Anthony. 1806" Annals of Botany 2: 555
Zarrei, M.; Zarre, S.; Wilkin, P.; Rix, M. (2007). "Systematic revision of the genus Gagea Salisb. (Liliaceae) in Iran". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 154: 559–588. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2007.00678.x.
Tison, J.M. (2009). An update of the genus Gagea Salisb. (Liliaceae) in the Iberian peninsula. Lagascalia 29: 7-22
Altervista Flora Italiana, genere Gagea
Flora of China Vol. 24 Page 117 顶冰花属 ding bing hua shu Gagea Salisbury, Ann. Bot. (Oxford). 2: 555. 1806.
Flora of China, Vol. 24 Page 121 洼瓣花属 wa ban hua shu Lloydia Reichenbach, Fl. Germ. Excurs. 102. 1830.
Tutin, T.G.; Heywood, V.H.; Burges, N.A.; Moore, D.M.; Valentine, D.H.; Walters, S.M. & Webb, D.A., eds. (1980). Flora Europaea. 5. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-20108-7. p. 25.

"Gagea". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2014-01-09.

Bibliography

Peterson, Angela; Levichev, Igor G.; Peterson, Jens (February 2008). "Systematics of Gagea and Lloydia (Liliaceae) and infrageneric classification of Gagea based on molecular and morphological data". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 46 (2): 446–465. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2007.11.016. PMID 18180173.
Tison, Jean-Marc; Peterson, Angela; Harpke, Dörte; Peruzzi, Lorenzo (28 November 2012). "Reticulate evolution of the critical Mediterranean Gagea sect. Didymobulbos (Liliaceae) and its taxonomic implications". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 299 (2): 413–438. doi:10.1007/s00606-012-0731-4.

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