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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Gentianales

Familia: Gentianaceae
Tribus: Gentianeae
Subtribus: Gentianinae
Genus: Gentiana
Sectiones: G. sect. Asclepiadeae – G. sect. CalathianaeG. sect. Chondrophylla – G. sect. Ciminalis – G. sect. CruciataG. sect. Dolichocarpa – G. sect. Fimbricorona – G. sect. FrigidaG. sect. GentianaG. sect. IsomeriaG. sect. Kudoa – G. sect. Microsperma – G. sect. Otophora – G. sect. PhyllocalyxG. sect. Pneumonanthe
Intersectional nothospecies: G. × bergeri

Species:

a

G. abaensis – G. acaulis – G. affinis – G. alba – G. albicalyx – G. albomarginata – G. algida – G. alii – G. alpina – G. alsinoides – G. altigena – G. altorum – G. ampla – G. amplicrater – G. andrewsii – G. angustifolia – G. anisostemon – G. aperta – G. apiata – G. aquatica – G. arethusae – G. argentea – G. arisanensis – G. aristata – G. asclepiadea – G. asparagoides – G. asterocalyx – G. atropurpurea – G. atuntsiensis – G. autumnalis – G. axilliflora

b

G. bambuseti – G. baeuerlenii – G. baoxingensis – G. bavarica – G. bella – G. bicuspidata – G. biflora – G. bigelovii – G. bomiensis – G. boissieri – G. boryi – G. brachyphylla – G. bredboensis – G. brentae – G. bryoides – G. burkillii – G. burmensis – G. burseri

c

G. cachemirica – G. caelestis – G. caeruleogrisea – G. caliculata – G. callistantha – G. calycosa – G. capitata – G. carinata – G. catesbaei – G. cephalantha – G. chazaroi – G. cherokeensis – G. choanantha – G. chungtienensis – G. clarkei – G. clausa – G. clusii – G. complexa – G. conduplicata – G. confertifolia – G. coronata – G. crassicaulis – G. crassula – G. crassuloides – G. crenulatotruncata – G. cristata – G. cruciata – G. cuneibarba – G. curvianthera – G. curviphylla

d

G. dahurica – G. daochengensis – G. davidii – G. decemfida – G. decora – G. decumbens – G. delavayi – G. delicata – G. deltoidea – G. dendrologi – G. densiflora – G. depressa – G. dinarica – G. divaricata – G. dolichocalyx – G. douglasiana – G. dschungarica – G. duclouxii – G. durangensis

e

G. ecaudata – G. elwesii – G. emodi – G. eonae – G. epichysantha – G. erectosepala – G. esquirolii – G. exigua – G. exquisita

f

G. faucipilosa – G. fetisowii – G. filisepala – G. filistyla – G. flavomaculata – G. flexicaulis – G. formosa – G. forrestii – G. franchetiana – G. fremontii – G. freyniana – G. frigida – G. froelichii – G. futtereri

g

G. gebleri – G. gelida – G. georgei – G. gilvostriata – G. glauca – G. globosa – G. grandiflora – G. grata – G. grumii – G. gyirongensis

h

G. handeliana – G. harrowiana – G. haynaldii – G. heleonastes – G. helophila – G. hexaphylla – G. himalayaensis – G. hintoniorum – G. hirsuta – G. hooperi – G. hugelii – G. huxleyi

i

G. inconspicua – G. intricata – G. itzershanensis

j

G. jamesii – G. jingdongensis –

k

G. kaufmanniana – G. khammouanensis – G. kitadakensis – G. kolakovskyi – G. kunmingensis – G. kurroo – G. kwangsiensis

l

G. lacerulata – G. lacinulata – G. laevigata – G. lawrencei – G. laxiflora – G. leucomelaena – G. lhassica – G. licentii – G. ligustica – G. linearis – G. lineolata – G. linoides – G. longicollis – G. longistyla – G. loureiroi – G. ludingensis – G. lutea

m

G. macrauchena – G. macrophylla – G. maeulchanensis – G. mailingensis – G. mairei – G. makinoi – G. manshurica – G. melandriifolia – G. micans – G. micantiformis – G. microdonta – G. microphyta – G. mirandae – G. moniliformis – G. muscicola – G. myrioclada

n

G. namlaensis – G. nanobella – G. napulifera – G. newberryi – G. ninglangensis – G. nipponica – G. nivalis – G. nubigena – G. nyalamensis – G. nyingchiensis

o

G. obconica – G. occidentalis – G. officinalis – G. olgae – G. oligophylla – G. olivieri – G. omeiensis – G. orbicularis – G. oreodoxa – G. ornata – G. ovatiloba

p

G. pannonica – G. panthaica – G. papillosa – G. paradoxa – G. parryi – G. parvula – G. pedata – G. pedicellata – G. penelliana – G. penetii – G. perpusilla – G. phyllocalyx – G. phyllopoda – G. piasezkii – G. picta – G. platypetala – G. pluviarum – G. pneumonanthe – G. porphyrio – G. praeclara – G. prainii – G. praticola – G. prattii – G. producta – G. prolata – G. prostrata – G. przewalskii – G. pseudoaquatica – G. pseudosquarrosa – G. puberulenta – G. pubiflora – G. pubigera – G. pudica – G. pumila – G. pumilio – G. punctata – G. purdomii – G. purpurea – G. pyrenaica

q

G. qiujiangensis

r

G. radiata – G. recurvata – G. rigescens – G. riparia – G. robusta – G. rostanii – G. rubicunda – G. rubricaulis

s

G. saponaria – G. scabra – G. scabrida – G. scabrifilamenta – G. sceptrum – G. schleicheri – G. scytophylla – G. sedifolia – G. septemfida – G. setigera – G. shaanxiensis – G. sierrae – G. sikkimensis – G. sikokiana – G. simulatrix – G. sinoornata – G. siphonantha – G. spathacea – G. spathulifolia – G. spathulisepala – G. squarrosa – G. stellata – G. stellata – G. stellulata – G. stipitata – G. straminea – G. strangulata – G. striolata – G. subintricata – G. suborbisepala – G. subuliformis – G. subuniflora – G. sutchuenensis – G. syringea – G. szechenyii

t

G. taiwanica – G. taliensis – G. tatakensis – G. tatsienensis – G. tentyoensis – G. tenuicaulis – G. tergestina – G. terglouensis – G. ternifolia – G. tetraphylla – G. tetrasticha – G. thunbergii – G. tianschanica – G. tibetica – G. tongolensis – G. trichotoma – G. tricolor – G. triflora – G. tubiflora

u

G. uchiyamae – G. uniflora – G. urnala – G. utriculosa

v

G. vandellioides – G. vardjanii – G. veitchiorum – G. venusta – G. verna – G. vernayi – G. viatrix – G. villosa – G. vugaris

w

G. waltonii – G. walujewii – G. wardii – G. wilsonii – G. winchuanensis – G. wingecarribiensis – G. wissmannii

x

G. xanthonannos – G. xingrenensis

y

G. yakushimensis – G. yiliangensis – G. yokusai – G. yunnanensis

z

G. zekuensis – G. zollingeri
Nothospecies: G. × ambigua – G. × bergeri – G. × billingtonii – G. × charpentieri – G. × curtisii – G. × digenea – G. × gentianella – G. × grisebachiana – G. × hybrida – G. × iseana – G. × laengstii – G. × macauleyi – G. × media – G. × spuria – G. × stevenagensis
Name

Gentiana L., Sp. Pl. 1: 227 (1753); Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 107 (1754).

Lectotype species: G. lutea L. (designated by N.L. Britton & A. Brown, Ill. Fl. N.U.S. ed. 2. 3: 8 (7 Jun 1913); supported by Hitchcock, Prop. Brit. Bot. 138 (Aug 1929)).

Synonyms

Homotypic
Asterias Borkh., Arch. Bot. (Leipzig) 1(1): 25. 1796, nom. illeg.
Lexipyretum Dulac, Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées 449. 1867, nom. illeg.
Heterotypic
Calathiana (Froel.) Delarbre, Fl. Auvergne (Delarbre) ed. 2, 28. 1800.
Type species: C. nivalis (L.) Delarbre
Chiophila Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 25. 1837.
Type species: C. nivalis (L.) Raf.
Ciminalis Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 504. 1763.
Type species: C. acaulis (L.) Borkh.
Coelanthe Borkh. ex Griseb., Gen. Sp. Gent. 297. 1839, publ. 1838, nom. inval.
Coilantha Borkh. in Roem., Arch. Bot. (Leipzig) 1 (1): 25. 1796.
Type species: C. purpurea (L.) Borkh
Cruciata Gilib., Fl. Lit. Inch. 1: 36. 1781, publ. 1782, nom. illeg. non Mill. (1754).
Type species: C. verticillata Gilib.
Dasystephana Adans., Fam. 2: 502, 548. 1763, as "Dasustephana".
Type species: D. asclepiadea (L.) Borkh.
Diploma Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 19. 1836, publ. 1837.
Type species: non design.
Ericala S.F.Gray, Net. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 335. 1821.
Type species: E. verna (L.) Gray
Ericoila Borkh., Archiv (Roemer) 1(1): 23. 1796.
Type species: E. cruciata (L.) Borkh.
Eudoxia G.Don, Gen. Hist. 4: 174, 202. 1837.
Type species: E. formosissima G.Don
Favargera Á.Löve & D.Löve, Bot. Not. 125: 256. 1972.
Type species: F. froelichii (Jan) Á.Löve & D.Löve
Gentianodes Á.Löve & D.Löve, Bot. Not. 125: 256. 1972.
Type species: G. frigida (Haenke) Á.Löve & D.Löve
Hippion F.W.Schmidt, Fl. Boem. 2: 18. 1794.
Type species: H. aestivum F.W.Schmidt, nom. illeg.
Holubia Á.Löve & D.Löve, Anales Inst. Bot. Cavanilles 32(2): 226. 1975, nom. illeg. non Oliver (1884).
Type species: H. pyrenaica (L.) Á.Löve & D.Löve
Holubogentia Á.Löve & D.Löve, Bot. Not. 131: 385. 1978.
Type species: H. pyrenaica (L.) Á.Löve & D.Löve
Mehraea Á.Löve & D.Löve, Recent Advances in Botany (P.Kachroo, ed.), Prof. P. N. Mehra commemorative volume: 205–216. 1976.
Type species: G. phyllocalyx C.B.Clarke
Qaisera Omer, Bot. Jahrb. 111: 205. 1989.
Type species: Q. coronata (Royle) Omer
Pneumonanthe Gled., Syst. Pl. (Gleditsch) 238. 1764.
Type species: P. vulgaris F.W. Schmidt
Pneumonanthe Gilib. Fl. Lit. Inch. 1: 34. 1782, nom. illeg. non Gled. (1764).
Type species: P. angustifolia Gilib.
Ricolia Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 23. 1836, publ. 1837.
Type species: non design.
Selatium D.Don ex G.Don, Gen. Hist. 4: 174, 196. 1837.
Type species: S. thyrsoideum (Hooker) D.Don ex G.Don
Thyrophora Neck., Elem. Bot. 2: 13. 1790, nom. inval., {OUO}}
Type species: non design.
Tretorhiza Adans., Fam. 2: 503. 1763.
Type species: T. cruciata (L.) Delarbre
Ulostoma D.Don ex G.Don, Gen. Hist. 4: 174, 196. 1837.
Type species: U. filamentosa D.Don ex G.Don
Varasia Phil., Fl. Atac. 35. 1860.
Type species: V. podocarpa Phil.
Xolemia Raf., Fl. Tell. 3: 22. 1837 ('1836').
Type species: G. saponaria L.

References
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 227. Reference page.
Linnaeus, C. 1754. Genera Plantarum, ed. 5: 107. Reference page.

Additional references

Britton, N.L. & Brown, A. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions: from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102d meridian. ed. 2. C. Scribner's sons, New York. Vol. 3: 8. Reference page.
Hitchcock, A.S. & Green, M.L. 1929. Standard species of Linnaean genera of Phanerogamae (1753–1754). pp. 111–195 in International Botanical Congress. Cambridge (England), 1930. Nomenclature. Proposals by British Botanists. His Majesty's Stationery Office, London. Biblioteca Digital Reference page.

{Ho & Liu, 2001}}
Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Gentiana in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jul 16. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2021. Gentiana. Published online. Accessed: Jul 16 2021.
Tropicos.org 2021. Gentiana. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jul 16.
Farr, E.R. & Zijlstra, G. (eds.) 1996 onwards. Gentiana in Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). Accessed: 2021 Jul 21.
Hassler, M. 2021. Gentiana. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2021. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jul 16. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2021. World Plants. Synonymic Checklist and Distribution of the World Flora. . Gentiana. Accessed: 16 Jul 2021.

Vernacular names

العربية: كوشاد
azərbaycanca: Acıçiçək
башҡортса: Бабасыр уты
Boarisch: Enzian
беларуская: Гарычка
български: Тинтява
català: Genciana
čeština: Hořec
dansk: Ensian
Deutsch: Enziane
dolnoserbski: Encian
English: Gentian
Esperanto: Genciano
español: Genciana
eesti: Emajuur
euskara: Gentziana
فارسی: گل سپاس
suomi: Katkerot
français: Gentiane
עברית: גנציאנה
hornjoserbsce: Hórkowc
magyar: Tárnics
հայերեն: Բոգ, ճնդիան, օձի դեղ, օձի սխտոր
Ido: Genciano
italiano: Genziana
日本語: リンドウ
ქართული: ნაღველა
қазақша: Көкгүл
한국어: 용담속
kurdî: Gafiş
lietuvių: Gencijonas
norsk bokmål: Storsøteslekta
Nederlands: Gentiaan
polski: Goryczka
Runa Simi: Phallcha
română: Gențiană
русский: Горечавка
slovenčina: Horec
српски / srpski: Линцура
svenska: Gentianasläktet
тыва дыл: Бөрү-оъду
українська: Тирлич
中文: 龙胆属

Gentiana /ˌdʒɛntʃiˈeɪnə/[2] is a genus of flowering plants belonging to the gentian family (Gentianaceae), the tribe Gentianeae, and the monophyletic subtribe Gentianinae. With about 400 species it is considered a large genus. They are notable for their mostly large, trumpet-shaped flowers, which are often of an intense blue.[3]

The genus name is a tribute to Gentius, an Illyrian king who may have been the discoverer of tonic properties in gentians.[4]

Habitat
Gentiana frigida

This is a cosmopolitan genus, occurring in alpine habitats in temperate regions of Asia, Europe and the Americas. Some species also occur in northwestern Africa, eastern Australia, and New Zealand. They are annual, biennial, and perennial plants. Some are evergreen, others are not.

Many gentians are difficult to grow outside their wild habitat, but several species are available in cultivation. Gentians are fully hardy and can grow in full sun or partial shade. They grow in well-drained, neutral-to-acid soils rich in humus. They are popular in rock gardens.
Uses

Many beverages are made with gentian root.[5] Gentiana lutea is used to produce gentian, a distilled beverage produced in the Alps. Some species are harvested for the manufacture of apéritifs, liqueurs, and tonics.

Gentian root is a common beverage flavouring for bitters. The soft drink Moxie contains gentian root.[6] The Swiss apéritif Suze is made with gentian. Americano apéritifs contain gentian root for bitter flavoring.[7] It is an ingredient in the Italian liqueur Aperol. It is also used as the main flavor in the German after-dinner digestif called Underberg, and the main ingredient in Angostura bitters and Peychaud's Bitters.

The bitter principle of gentian root is primarily gentiopicrin (also called gentiopicroside),[8] a glycoside. A 2007 paper by a Japanese group identified 23 compounds in fresh gentian root.[9] Gentiopicrin was absent from fresh root, so it possibly develops during drying and storage of the root.

Gentian has had a limited use in parfumery, most notably as a glycerine soap (Crabtree & Evelyn) and a perfume (Corday's Possession, 1937).
Pharmacological uses

This section needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. Please review the contents of the section and add the appropriate references if you can. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed.
Find sources: "Gentiana" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (September 2017)

Rod of Asclepius2.svg

Great yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea) is used in herbal medicine for digestive problems, fever, hypertension, muscle spasms, parasitic worms, wounds, cancer, sinusitis, and malaria,[10] although studies have shown minimal efficacy beyond that of a placebo with regard to the treatment of anxiety and ADHD in children.[11][12][13] It has been studied and proven in effectively managing dyspepsia.[14]

Gentiana punctata leaves and roots have been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally and externally as liqueur or tea for disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, skin, locomotor system, liver and bile, and for pediatric problems, fever, flu, rheumatism, and gout.[15]

Gentiana purpurea, Gentiana punctata, and Gentiana pannonica are used to produce bitter schnapps, traditionally used as digestive aid. In Ayurvedic medicine the endangered Indian gentian Gentiana kurroo has been used as medical herb, but has been replaced with the Himalayan plant Picrorhiza kurroa, Plantaginaceae or Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora (胡黃蓮 Hú Huáng Lián) from traditional Chinese medicine.
Symbolism
The emblem of the Minamoto clan

The gentian flower was used as the emblem of the Minamoto clan, one of the four great clans that dominated Japanese politics during the Heian period and went on to establish the first Shogunate in the aftermath of the Genpei War. It is the official flower of the German speaking community of Belgium.
Species
General

Gentians have oppositely arranged leaves, sometimes in a basal rosette. The trumpet-shaped flowers are usually deep blue or azure, but can be white, cream, yellow, or red. Many species are polymorphic with respect to flower color, bearing flowers of different colors. Blue-flowered species predominate in the Northern Hemisphere, with red-flowered species dominant in the Andes, where bird pollination is probably more often favored by natural selection. White-flowered species are scattered throughout the range of the genus but dominate in New Zealand. Most flowers are pentamerous, with five lobes in the corolla and five sepals. A few species have four to seven flower parts. The corolla has folds called plicae between the lobes. The style is short or absent. The ovary is mostly sessile and has nectary glands.
List of accepted species

[16]

Gentiana acaulis – stemless gentian
Gentiana affinis – pleated gentian
Gentiana alata
Gentiana alba – plain gentian
Gentiana albicalyx
Gentiana albomarginata
Gentiana algida – whitish gentian
Gentiana alii
Gentiana alpina – alpine gentian
Gentiana alsinoides
Gentiana altigena
Gentiana altorum
Gentiana amplicrater
Gentiana andrewsii – closed bottle gentian
Gentiana angustifolia
Gentiana anisostemon
Gentiana aperta
Gentiana apiata
Gentiana aquatica
Gentiana arenicola
Gentiana arethusae
Gentiana argentea
Gentiana arisanensis
Gentiana aristata
Gentiana asclepiadea – willow gentian
Gentiana asterocalyx
Gentiana atlantica
Gentiana atuntsiensis
Gentiana austromontana – Appalachian gentian
Gentiana autumnalis – pinebarren gentian
Gentiana axilliflora
Gentiana baeuerlenii
Gentiana bambuseti
Gentiana bavarica – Bavarian gentian
Gentiana beamanii
Gentiana bella
Gentiana bicuspidata
Gentiana boissieri
Gentiana bokorensis
Gentiana borneensis
Gentiana boryi
Gentiana brachyphylla
Gentiana bryoides
Gentiana burseri
Gentiana cachemirica
Gentiana caelestis
Gentiana caeruleogrisea
Gentiana caliculata
Gentiana calycosa – Rainier pleated gentian
Gentiana capitata
Gentiana carinata
Gentiana carinicostata
Gentiana caryophyllea
Gentiana catesbaei – Elliott's gentian
Gentiana cephalantha
Gentiana cephalodes
Gentiana chateri
Gentiana chinensis
Gentiana choanantha
Gentiana chosenica
Gentiana chungtienensis
Gentiana clarkei
Gentiana clausa – bottled gentian
Gentiana clusii – trumpet gentian
Gentiana confertifolia
Gentiana coronata
Gentiana crassa
Gentiana crassicaulis
Gentiana crassula
Gentiana crassuloides
Gentiana cristata
Gentiana cruciata – cross gentian
Gentiana cruttwellii
Gentiana cuneibarba
Gentiana dahurica
Gentiana damyonensis
Gentiana davidii
Gentiana decemfida
Gentiana decora – showy gentian
Gentiana decorata
Gentiana decumbens
Gentiana delavayi
Gentiana deltoidea
Gentiana dendrologii
Gentiana densiflora
Gentiana depressa
Gentiana dinarica
Gentiana divaricata
Gentiana diversifolia
Gentiana douglasiana – swamp gentian
Gentiana doxiongshangensis
Gentiana dschungarica
Gentiana duclouxii
Gentiana durangensis
Gentiana ecaudata
Gentiana elmeriana
Gentiana elwesii
Gentiana emodi
Gentiana ettingshausenii
Gentiana exigua
Gentiana expansa
Gentiana faucipilosa
Gentiana fieldiana
Gentiana filistyla
Gentiana flavomaculata
Gentiana flexicaulis
Gentiana formosa
Gentiana forrestii
Gentiana franchetiana
Gentiana fremontii – moss gentian
Gentiana frigida
Gentiana froelichii – Karawanken gentian
Gentiana futtereri
Gentiana gelida
Gentiana gentilis
Gentiana georgei
Gentiana gilvostriata
Gentiana glauca – pale gentian
Gentiana grandiflora
Gentiana grata
Gentiana grumii
Gentiana gyirongensis
Gentiana handeliana
Gentiana haraldi-smithii
Gentiana harrowiana
Gentiana haynaldii
Gentiana heleonastes
Gentiana helophila
Gentiana hesseliana
Gentiana hexaphylla
Gentiana himalayensis
Gentiana hirsuta
Gentiana hohoxiliensis
Gentiana hooperi
Gentiana hugelii
Gentiana huxleyi
Gentiana infelix
Gentiana intricata
Gentiana Inverleith
Gentiana jamesii
Gentiana jarmilae
Gentiana jingdongensis
Gentiana jouyana
Gentiana kaohsiungensis
Gentiana kauffmanniana
Gentiana khammouanensis
Gentiana kurroo
Gentiana kwangsiensis
Gentiana lacerulata
Gentiana laevigata
Gentiana langbianensis
Gentiana lateriflora
Gentiana lawrencii
Gentiana laxiflora
Gentiana leptoclada
Gentiana leroyana
Gentiana leucomelaena
Gentiana lhassica
Gentiana liangshanensis
Gentiana licentii
Gentiana ligustica
Gentiana linearis – narrowleaf gentian
Gentiana lineolata
Gentiana linoides
Gentiana loerzingii
Gentiana longicollis
Gentiana loureiroi
Gentiana lowryi
Gentiana lutea – great yellow gentian
Gentiana lycopodioides
Gentiana macrophylla – bigleaf gentian
Gentiana makinoi
Gentiana microdonta
Gentiana newberryi – Newberry's gentian
Gentiana nipponica
Gentiana nivalis – snow gentian
Gentiana nubigena
Gentiana ochroleuca
Gentiana olgae
Gentiana olivieri
Gentiana orbicularis – round leaved gentian
Gentiana ornata
Gentiana pannonica – brown gentian
Gentiana paradoxa
Gentiana parryi – Parry's gentian
Gentiana pedicellata
Gentiana pennelliana – wiregrass gentian
Gentiana phyllocalyx
Gentiana platypetala – broadpetal gentian
Gentiana plurisetosa – bristly gentian
Gentiana pneumonanthe – marsh gentian
Gentiana prolata
Gentiana prostrata – pygmy gentian
Gentiana przewalskii
Gentiana pterocalyx
Gentiana puberulenta – downy gentian
Gentiana pumila
Gentiana punctata – spotted gentian
Gentiana purpurea – purple gentian
Gentiana pyrenaica
Gentiana quadrifolia
Gentiana rigescens
Gentiana rostanii
Gentiana rubricaulis – closed gentian
Gentiana saponaria – harvestbells gentian
Gentiana saxosa
Gentiana scabra
Gentiana scarlatina
Gentiana sceptrum – king's scepter gentian
Gentiana sedifolia
Gentiana septemfida – crested gentian
Gentiana setigera – Mendocino gentian
Gentiana setulifolia
Gentiana sikkimensis
Gentiana sikokiana
Gentiana sino-ornata – showy Chinese gentian
Gentiana siphonantha
Gentiana speciosa
Gentiana squarrosa
Gentiana stictantha
Gentiana stragulata
Gentiana straminea
Gentiana tenuifolia
Gentiana terglouensis – Triglav gentian
Gentiana ternifolia
Gentiana tianshanica – Tienshan gentian
Gentiana trichotoma
Gentiana triflora
Gentiana trinervis
Gentiana tubiflora
Gentiana uchiyamai
Gentiana ulmeri
Gentiana uniflora
Gentiana urnula
Gentiana utriculosa – bladder gentian
Gentiana vandellioides
Gentiana vandewateri
Gentiana veitchiorum
Gentiana venosa
Gentiana venusta
Gentiana verna – spring gentian
Gentiana vernayi
Gentiana viatrix
Gentiana villifera
Gentiana villosa – striped gentian
Gentiana waltonii
Gentiana walujewii
Gentiana wangchukii
Gentiana wasenensis
Gentiana wilsonii
Gentiana winchuanensis
Gentiana wingecarribiensis (N.S.W.)
Gentiana wootchuliana – Korean alpine gentian[17]
Gentiana xanthonannos
Gentiana yakushimensis
Gentiana yokusai
Gentiana yunnanensis
Gentiana zekuensis
Gentiana zollingeri

Formerly placed here

[18]
[icon]
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2012)

Gentianopsis crinita (fringed gentian), as Gentiana crinita

Cultivation
Gentiana paradoxa

Several gentian species may be found in cultivation, and are valued for the unusual intensity of their blue flowers. They have a reputation for being difficult to grow. All require similar conditions – moist, rich, free-draining soil with an acid to neutral pH. They include:[3]

G. acaulis
G. asclepiadea
G. paradoxa
G. septemfida
G. sino-ornata

In addition, the following cultivars, of mixed or uncertain parentage, have gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit:[19]

'Blue Silk'[20]
'Shot Silk'[21]
'Strathmore'[22]

References

"Gentiana Tourn. ex L." Plants of the World Online. Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2017. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
Sunset Western Garden Book (6th ed.). Menlo Park, Calif.: Sunset Publishing Corp. 1995. pp. 606–607. ISBN 978-0-376-03850-0.
RHS A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 978-1-4053-3296-5.
Jepson WL (1953). A manual of the Flowering Plants of California. Berkeley: University of California. p. 763. ISBN 978-0-520-00606-5. "Gentiana gentius."
Strewe L. "Ethnobotany of gentians". Gentian Research Network.
Orchant R (March 1, 2013). "Moxie: The distinctively different soda that New England loves". The Huffington Post.
"Quinquina & Americano by Brand". Vermouth 101.
PubChem. Gentiopicroside. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Gentiopicrin
The chemical constituents of fresh Gentian Root, Hidehiro Ando, Yasuaki Hirai, Mikio Fujii, Yumiko Hori, Motonori Fukumura, Yujiro Niiho, Yoshijiro Nakajima, Toshiro Shibata, Kazuo Toriizuka, Yoshiteru Ida. Journal of Natural Medicines. July 2007, Volume 61, Issue 3, pp. 269–279. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11418-007-0143-x
"Gentian". WebMD.
Ernst E (August 2010). "Bach flower remedies: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials". Swiss Medical Weekly. 140: w13079. doi:10.4414/smw.2010.13079. PMID 20734279.
Walach H, Rilling C, Engelke U (2001). "Efficacy of Bach-flower remedies in test anxiety: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial with partial crossover". Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 15 (4): 359–66. doi:10.1016/S0887-6185(01)00069-X. PMID 11474820.
Pintov S, Hochman M, Livne A, Heyman E, Lahat E (2005). "Bach flower remedies used for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children—a prospective double blind controlled study". European Journal of Paediatric Neurology. 9 (6): 395–8. doi:10.1016/j.ejpn.2005.08.001. PMID 16257245.
McMullen MK, Whitehouse JM, Towell A (2015). "Bitters: Time for a New Paradigm". Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2015: 670504. doi:10.1155/2015/670504. PMC 4446506. PMID 26074998.
Vogl S, Picker P, Mihaly-Bison J, Fakhrudin N, Atanasov AG, Heiss EH, Wawrosch C, Reznicek G, Dirsch VM, Saukel J, Kopp B (October 2013). "Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria's folk medicine—an unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 149 (3): 750–71. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.007. PMC 3791396. PMID 23770053.
"The Plant List: Gentiana L." Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Missouri Botanic Garden. 2013. Retrieved 26 May 2016.
English Names for Korean Native Plants (PDF). Pocheon: Korea National Arboretum. 2015. p. 477. ISBN 978-89-97450-98-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 16 December 2016 – via Korea Forest Service.
"The Plant List: A working list of all plant species".
"AGM Plants – Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 42. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
"Gentiana 'Blue Silk'". RHS Plantfinder. Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
"Gentiana 'Shot Silk'". RHS Plantfinder. Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 27 February 2018.

"Gentiana 'Strathmore'". RHS Plantfinder. Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 27 February 2018.

Further reading
Struwe L, Albert VA, eds. (2002). Gentianaceae. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-80999-3.
"Gentian Research Network".

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