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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Cichorioideae
Tribus: Cichorieae
Subtribus: Hypochaeridinae
Genus: Leontodon
Species: L. anomalus – L. apulus – L. asperrimus – L. balansae – L. berinii – L. biscutellifolius – L. boryi – L. bourgaeanus – L. caucasicus – L. crispus – L. djurdjurae – L. dubius – L. eriopodus – L. farinosus – L. filii – L. friasi – L. graecus – L. grassiorum – L. hellenicus – L. hirtus – L. hispidus – L. hyoseroides – L. incanus – L. intermedius – L. kotschyi – L. kulczynskii – L. libanoticus – L. longirostris – L. maroccanus – L. oxylepis – L. pinetorum – L. pitardii – L. rigens – L. rosanii – L. saxatilis – L. siculus – L. stenocalathius – L. tenuiflorus – L. tingitanus – L. tuberosus
Name

Leontodon L., Sp. Pl. 2: 798. (1753) nom. et typ. cons.

Type species: Leontodon hispidus L., Sp. Pl. 2: 799. (1753)

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Apargia Scop., Fl. Carniol. (ed. 2) 2: 113. (1772)

References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum 2: 798.
Kilian N., Hand R. & Raab-Straube E.v. (general editors) 2021. Leontodon. Cichorieae Systematics Portal. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Feb. 16. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2018. Leontodon. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 June 21. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018i. Leontodon. Published online. Accessed: June 21 2018i.
Tropicos.org 2018. Leontodon. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 June 21.

Vernacular names
čeština: máchelka
dansk: Borst
Deutsch: Löwenzahn, Leuenzahn
English: Hawkbits
Esperanto: Leontodono, Leondento
español: Oporinia, Apargia
eesti: Seanupp
فارسی: شیردندان
suomi: Maitiaiset
Nordfriisk: Hingstkralen
français: Liondent
עברית: שן-ארי
հայերեն: Առյուծատան, առյուծաժանի, առյուծատամ
ქართული: ლომისკბილა
қазақша: Алмар
lietuvių: Snaudalė
Nederlands: Leeuwentand
norsk nynorsk: Følblomslekta
polski: Brodawnik
русский: Кульбаба
slovenčina: púpavec
svenska: Lejonfibblor

Leontodon is a genus of plants in the dandelion tribe within the sunflower family (Compositae), commonly known as hawkbits.

Their English name derives from the mediaeval belief that hawks ate the plant to improve their eyesight. Although originally only native to Eurasia and North Africa, some species have since become established in other countries, including the United States[2] and New Zealand.[3]

Recent research has shown that the genus Leontodon in the traditional delimitation is polyphyletic. Therefore, the former Leontodon subgenus Oporinia was raised to generic level.[4] According to the nomenclatural rules the name Scorzoneroides has priority at generic level and therefore, the members of Leontodon subgenus Oporinia were transferred to the re-erected genus Scorzoneroides.[5]

Ecology

Seeds of Leontodon species are an important food source for certain bird species.[6]
Uses

In Crete, the species Leontodon tuberosus which is called γλυκοβύζια (glykovyzia), γλυκοράδικα (glykoradika) or βυζάκια (vyzakia) has its roots eaten raw and its leaves eaten steamed.[7]
Secondary metabolites

The genus Leontodon s.str. (i.e. excluding the members of the resurrected genus Scorzoneroides) is a rich source of hypocretenolides, unique guaiane type sesquiterpene lactones with a 12,5-lactone ring instead of the usual 12,6 lactone ring.[8]

Phenolics found in Leontodon include luteolin type flavonoids and caffeoyl quinic acid derivatives such as chlorogenic acid and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. Moreover, Leontodon species contain the caffeoyl tartaric acid derivatives caffeoyl tartaric acid and cichoric acid.[9][10]
Species

accepted species[1]

Leontodon alpestris
Leontodon alpinus
Leontodon ambiguus
Leontodon anomalus
Leontodon apulus
Leontodon asperifolius
Leontodon asperrimus
Leontodon atlanticus
Leontodon balansae
Leontodon berinii
Leontodon biscutellifolius
Leontodon borbasii
Leontodon boryi
Leontodon bourgaeanus
Leontodon brancsikii
Leontodon calvatus
Leontodon caucasicus
Leontodon collinus
Leontodon crispus
Leontodon croceus
Leontodon dandaleus
Leontodon dentatus
Leontodon djurdjurae
Leontodon dubius
Leontodon ehrenbergii
Leontodon eriopodus
Leontodon farinosus
Leontodon filii
Leontodon froedinii
Leontodon gaussenii
Leontodon glaber
Leontodon glaberrimus
Leontodon graecus
Leontodon hellenicus
Leontodon hirtus
Leontodon hispidaster
Leontodon hispidus
Leontodon hugueninii
Leontodon hyoseroides
Leontodon incanus
Leontodon intermedius
Leontodon jouffroyi
Leontodon kaiseri
Leontodon kerneri
Leontodon kotschyi
Leontodon kulczynskii
Leontodon kunthianus
Leontodon laciniatus
Leontodon laconicus
Leontodon lannesii
Leontodon libanoticus
Leontodon lucidus
Leontodon macrorrhizus
Leontodon maroccanus
Leontodon megalorrhizus
Leontodon molineri
Leontodon nivatensis
Leontodon oxylepis
Leontodon pinetorum
Leontodon pinnatifidus
Leontodon pitardii
Leontodon pratensis
Leontodon preslii
Leontodon reboudianum
Leontodon rigens
Leontodon rosani
Leontodon ruthii
Leontodon saxatilis
Leontodon siculus
Leontodon sooi
Leontodon stenocalathius
Leontodon subincanus
Leontodon sublyratus
Leontodon taraxacoides
Leontodon tenuiflorus
Leontodon tingitanus
Leontodon tomentosus
Leontodon tuberosus
Leontodon tulmentinus
Leontodon uliginosus
Leontodon vegetus

Further reading

Euro+Med Plantbase
Battandier, J. A.; L. Trabut (1902). Flore de l'Algérie et de la Tunisie. Alger.
Blatter, E. (1921). Flora Arabica II: Leguminosae-Compositae. Calcutta.
Boulos, L. (2002). Flora of Egypt. Cairo.
Danin, A. (2004). Distribution atlas of plants in the Flora Palaestina area. Jerusalem.
Davis, P. (1975). Flora of Turkey Vol. 5. Edinburgh.
Finch, R. A.; P. D. Sell (1976). "Leontodon L.". In Tutin, T. G.; Heywood, V. H.; Burges, N. A.; Moore, D. M.; Valentine, D. H.; Walters S. M.; Webb D. A. (eds.). Flora Europaea. 4. Cambridge.
Jafri, S.M.H.; A. El-Gadi (1983). Flora of Libya. Tripoli.
Jahandiez, E.; R. Maire (1934). Catalogue des plantes du Maroc. 3. Alger.
Moutérde, P. (1983). Nouvelle flore du Liban et de la Syrie. Beyrouth.
Pittoni, H. (1977). "Leontodon". In K. H. Rechinger (ed.). Flora Iranica. 122. Graz.
Quézel, P.; S. Santa (1963). Nouvelle flore de l'Algérie et des régions désertiques méridionales. Paris.
Rechinger, K. H. (1964). Flora of lowland Iraq. Weinheim.
Vassilev, V. N. (2000). Leontodon. In Bobrov, E. G. & Tzevelev, N. N. Flora of the USSR 29: Compositae, Cichorieae, pages 204-218. Enfield.
Widder, F.J. (1975). "Die Gliederung der Gattung Leontodon". Phyton (Horn, Austria). 17: 23–29. ISSN 0079-2047.
Zidorn, C. (2012). "Leontodon and Scorzoneroides (Asteraceae, Cichorieae) in Italy". Plant Biosystems. Taylor & Francis. 146 (Suppl. 1): 41–51. doi:10.1080/11263504.2012.710272. ISSN 1126-3504.
Zohary, M. (1978). Flora Palaestina Vol. 3. Jerusalem.

References

Flann, C. (ed) 2009+ Global Compositae Checklist Archived 2014-12-13 at archive.today
"52. Leontodon Linnaeus", Flora of North America
"LEONTODON L.", Flora of New Zealand
Rosabelle Samuel; Walter Gutermann; Tod F. Stuessy; Claudete F. Ruas; Hans-Walter Lack; Karin Tremetsberger; Salvador Talavera; Barbara Hermanowski; Friedrich Ehrendorfer (2006), "Molecular phylogenetics reveals Leontodon (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) to be diphyletic", American Journal of Botany, 93: 1193–1205, doi:10.3732/ajb.93.8.1193, PMID 21642184
Greuter, W.; Gutermann, W. & Talavera, S. (2006), "A preliminary conspectus of Scorzoneroides (Compositae, Cichorieae) with validation of the required new names" (PDF), Willdenowia, 36: 689–692, doi:10.3372/wi.36.36204, ISSN 0511-9618, archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-06
D. L. Buckingham; W. J. Peach (2005). "The influence of livestock management on habitat quality for farmland birds". Animal Science. 81: 199–203. doi:10.1079/asc50700199.[permanent dead link]
Kleonikos G. Stavridakis; Κλεόνικος Γ. Σταυριδάκης (2006). Wild edible plants of Crete - Η Άγρια βρώσιμη χλωρίδα της Κρήτης. Rethymnon Crete. ISBN 960-631-179-1.
Zidorn, C. (2008). "Sesquiterpene lactones and their precursors as chemosystematic markers in the tribe Cichorieae of the Asteraceae". Phytochemistry. 69: 2270–2296. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2008.06.013. ISSN 0031-9422. PMID 18715600.
Zidorn, C.; Stuppner, H. (2001). "Evaluation of chemosystematic characters in the genus Leontodon". Taxon (IAPT, Vienna). 50: 115–133. doi:10.2307/1224515. ISSN 0040-0262.
Sareedenchai, V.; Zidorn, C. (2010). "Flavonoids as chemosystematic markers in the tribe Cichorieae of the Asteraceae". Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 38: 935–957. doi:10.1016/j.bse.2009.09.006. ISSN 0305-1978.

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