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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales

Familia: Asparagaceae
Subfamilia: Scilloideae
Tribus: Hyacintheae
Subtribus: Hyacinthinae
Genus: Scilla
Sectiones: S. sect. Atropatanae – S. sect. Luteoscilla – S. sect. Nigriscilla – S. sect. Scilla
Species: S. achtenii – S. africana – S. albanica – S. albinerve – S. alinihatiana – S. amoena – S. andria – S. antunesii – S. arenaria – S. arsusiana – S. begoniifolia – S. benguellensis – S. berthelotii – S. bifolia – S. bilgineri – S. bithynica – S. buekkensis – S. bussei – S. chlorantha – S. ciliata – S. cilicica – S. congesta – S. cydonia – S. dimartinoi – S. dualaensis – S. engleri – S. flaccidula – S. forbesii – S. gabunensis – S. gracillima – S. haemorrhoidalis – S. hakkariensis – S. hildebrandtii – S. huanica – S. hyacinthoides – S. ingridiae – S. jaegeri – S. katendensis – S. kladnii – S. kurdistanica – S. lakusicii – S. latifolia – S. laxiflora – S. ledienii – S. leepii – S. libanotica – S. lilio-hyacinthus – S. litardierei – S. lochiae – S. longistylosa – S. luciliae – S. lucis – S. madeirensis – S. melaina – S. merinoi – S. mesopotamica – S. messeniaca – S. mischtschenkoana – S. monanthos – S. monophyllos – S. morrisii – S. nana – S. nivalis – S. oubangluensis – S. paui – S. peruviana – S. petersii – S. platyphylla – S. pleiophylla – S. pneumonanthe – S. reuteri – S. rosenii – S. sardensis – S. schweinfurthii – S. siberica – S. simiarum – S. sodalicia – S. subnivalis – S. tayloriana – S. textilis – S. uyuiensis – S. vardaria – S. verdickii – S. verna – S. villosa – S. vindobonensis – S. voethorum – S. welwitschii – S. werneri
Nothospecies: S. × allenii

see also Prospero
Name

Scilla L., Sp. Pl.: 308 (1753); Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 146 (1754), nom. & typ. cons. prop.

Type species: S. bifolia L., lectotype designated by Hitchcock, Prop. Brit. Bot. 146. Aug. 1929)
(Type species: S. maritima L., lectotype designated by Rafinesque, Fl. Tellur. 3: 8 (1837), typ. rej. prop., voted as ineffective typification by the Nomenclature Committee for Vascular Plants.)

Synonyms

Homotypic
Adenoscilla Gren. & Godr., Fl. France 3: 187 (1855).
Genlisa Raf., Autik. Bot.: 57 (1840).
Rinopodium Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 28 (1866).
Stellaris Fabr., Enum.: 13 (1759), nom. superfl.
Stellaster Heist. ex Fabr., Enum., ed. 2: 23 (1763), nom. superfl.
Heterotypic
Apsanthea Jord. in C.T.A.Jordan & J.P.Fourreau, Icon. Fl. Eur. 2: 40 (1903}.
Autonoe (Webb & Berthel.) Speta, Phyton (Horn) 38: 93 (1998).
Type species: Autonoe haemorrhoidalis (Webb & Berthel.) Speta, Phyton (Horn) 38: 93 (1998) = Scilla haemorrhoidalis Webb & Berthel., Hist. Nat. Iles Canaries 3(2; 3): 336 (1847).
Basaltogeton Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 27 (1866).
Type species: Scilla peruviana L.
Caloscilla Jord. & Fourr., Icon. Fl. Eur. 2: 14 (1869).
Chionodoxa Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. 5: 61 (1844).
Type species: Chionodoxa luciliae Boiss.
× Chionoscilla J.Allen ex G.Nicholson, Gard. Chron., III, 21: 191 (1897).
Type species: × Chionoscilla allenii G.Nicholson
Chouardia Speta, Phyton (Horn) 38: 97 (1998).
Type species: Chouardia litardierei (Breistr.) Speta
Helonias Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 50. 1763, nom. illeg. non L. (1753).
Lilio-Hyacinthus Ortega, Tab. Bot.: 20 (1773).
Type species: non design.
Monocallis Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 27 (1866).
Type species: Monocallis monophylla (Link) Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 28 (1866) = Scilla monophyllos Link, J. Bot. (Schrader) 1799(2): 319 (1800).
Nectaroscilla Parl., Nuov. Gen. Sp. Monocot.: 26 (1854).
Type species: Nectaroscilla hyacinthoides (L.) Parl. = Scilla hyacinthoides L.
Oncostema Raf., Fl. Tellur. 2: 13 (1837).
Type species: Oncostema villosa (Desf.) Raf. = Scilla villosa Desf., Fl. Atlant. 1: 299 (1798).
Petranthe Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 27 (1866).
Type species: Petranthe verna (Huds.) Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 27 (1866) = Scilla verna Huds., Fl. Angl., ed. 2: 142 (1778) ("L.").
Pfosseria Speta, Phyton (Horn) 38: 113 (1998).
Type species: Pfosseria bithynica (Boiss.) Speta, Phyton (Horn) 38: 113 (1998) = Scilla bithynica Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. 7: 111 (1846).
Schnarfia Speta, Phyton (Horn) 38: 120 (1998).
Type species: Schnarfia messeniaca (Boiss.) Speta, Phyton (Horn) 38: 121 (1998) = Scilla messeniaca Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. 7: 110 (1846).
Tractema Raf., Fl. Tellur. 2: 57 (1837).
Type species: Tractema pumila (Brot.) Raf., Fl. Tellur. 2: 57 (1837) = Scilla monophyllos Link, J. Bot. (Schrader) 1799(2): 319 (1800).

Misapplied names
"Ioncomelos" auct. non Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 62 (1837), orth. var., sensu IPNI etc. (only Loncomelos purpureus Raf. is given on the cited page)

Note:

Deviations from the WCSP treatment: The genera Hylomenes Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 26 (1866), Epimenidion Raf., Fl. Tellur. 2: 13 (1837) and Lagocodes Raf., Fl. Tellur. 2: 24 (1837) are synonyms of Hyacinthoides Heist. ex Fabr. (Speta 1987). Scilla cretica (Boiss. & Heldr.) Speta (= Chionodoxa cretica Boiss. & Heldr.) was relegated to synonymy of Scilla nana (Schult. & Schult.f.) Speta by Speta (1976, 1980); this has been widely followed.
Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Continental: Europe
Regional: Northern Europe
Føroyar, Great Britain, Ireland, Norway.
Regional: Middle Europe
Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands (introduced), Poland, Switzerland.
Regional: Southwestern Europe
Corse, France, Portugal, Sardegna, Spain.
Regional: Southeastern Europe
Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Kriti, Romania, Sicilia, Turkey-in-Europe, Yugoslavia.
Regional: Eastern Europe
Belarus, Krym, Central European Russia, East European Russia, South European Russia, Northwest European Russia (introduced), Ukraine.
Continental: Africa
Regional: Northern Africa
Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, Western Sahara.
Regional: Macaronesia
Canary Islands, Madeira, Selvagens.
Regional: West-Central Tropical Africa
Central African Republic, Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, Zaire.
Regional: Northeast Tropical Africa
Chad, Sudan.
Regional: East Tropical Africa
Kenya, Tanzania.
Regional: South Tropical Africa
Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe.
Continental: Asia-Temperate
Regional: Caucasus
North Caucasus, Transcaucasus.
Regional: Western Asia
Cyprus, East Aegean Islands, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon-Syria, Palestine, Turkey.
Continental: Australasia (introduced)
Regional: Australia
South Australia.
Regional: New Zealand
New Zealand North, New Zealand South.
Continental: Northern America (introduced)
Regional: Western Canada
British Columbia.
Regional: Eastern Canada
New Brunswick, Ontario, Québec.
Regional: North-Central U.S.A.
Illinois, Missouri, Wisconsin.
Regional: Northeastern U.S.A.
Indiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Vermont.
Regional: Southwestern U.S.A.
Utah.
Regional: South-Central U.S.A.
Texas.
Regional: Southeastern U.S.A.
Kentucky, Louisiana.
Regional: Mexico
Mexico Central.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 308. Reference page.
Linnaeus, C. 1754. Genera Plantarum, ed. 5: 146. Reference page.

Additional references

Hitchcock, A.S. & Green, M.L. 1929. Standard species of Linnaean genera of Phanerogamae (1753–1754). pp. 111–195 in International Botanical Congress. Cambridge (England), 1930. Nomenclature. Proposals by British Botanists. His Majesty's Stationery Office, London. Biblioteca Digital Reference page.
Speta, F. 1971. Beitrag zur Systematik von Scilla L. subgen. Scilla (incl. Chionodoxa Boiss.). Oesterreichische Botanische Zeitschrift 119(1–3): 6–18. DOI:10.1007/BF01373105. Reference page.
Speta, F. 1976. Über Chionodoxa Boiss., ihre Gliederung und Zugehörigkeit zu Scilla L. Naturkundliches Jahrbuch der Stadt Linz 21: 9–79. PDF. Reference page.
Speta, F. 1979 publ. 1980. Die frühjahrsblühenden Scilla-Arten des östlichen Mittelmeerraumes. Naturkundliches Jahrbuch der Stadt Linz 25: 19–198 + 47 plates. PDF Reference page.
Speta, F. 1987. Über die verwandtschaftlichen Beziehungen von Brimeura Salisb.: ein Vergleich mit den Gattungen Oncostema Rafin., Hyacinthoides Medic. und Camassia Lindl. (Hyacinthaceae). Phyton (Horn) 26: 247–310. PDF Reference page.
Speta, F. 1998. Systematische Analyse der Gattung Scilla L. s.l. (Hyacinthaceae). Phyton (Horn) 38(1): 1–141. PDF Reference page.
Pfosser, M. & Speta, F. 1999. Phylogenetics of Hyacinthaceae based on plastid DNA sequences. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 86(4): 852–875. JSTOR BHL Reference page.
Martínez-Azorín, M. & Crespo, M.B. 2016. (2483) Proposal to conserve the name Scilla (Hyacinthaceae) with a conserved type. Taxon 65(6): 1427–1428. DOI: 10.12705/656.19 Open access Reference page. [recommended, see Taxon 68(4): 848–849]

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Scilla in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Dec 22. Reference page.
Tropicos.org 2014. Scilla. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2014 Mar. 7.
International Plant Names Index. 2014. Scilla. Published online. Accessed: Mar. 7 2014.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Scilla in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service.
Farr, E.R. & Zijlstra, G. (eds.) 1996 onwards. Scilla in Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). Accessed: 2021 Dec 22.

Vernacular names

العربية: إشقيل
беларуская: Пралеска
čeština: Ladoňka
dansk: Skilla
Deutsch: Blausterne
English: Squill
Esperanto: Scilo
español: Escila
فارسی: نجم‌آبی
suomi: Sinililjat ja kevättähdet
français: Scille
Gaeilge: Scil
עברית: בן-חצב
hornjoserbsce: Česnička
magyar: Csillagvirág
հայերեն: Մկնասոխ
日本語: シラー属
қазақша: Супияз
lietuvių: Scylė
Nederlands: Sterhyacint
polski: Cebulica
русский: Пролеска
slovenčina: Scila
српски / srpski: Никсица
svenska: Blåstjärnesläktet
українська: Проліска
中文: 绵枣儿属

Scilla (/ˈsɪlə/) is a genus of about 50 to 80[2] species of bulb-forming perennial herbaceous plants in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Scilloideae.[3] Sometimes called the squills in English,[4] they are native to woodlands, subalpine meadows, and seashores throughout Europe, Africa and the Middle East. A few species are also naturalized in Australia, New Zealand and North America.[1][5][6] Their flowers are usually blue, but white, pink, and purple types are known; most flower in early spring, but a few are autumn-flowering. Several Scilla species are valued as ornamental garden plants.

Systematics

Scilla has most recently been classified as belonging to the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Scilloideae; that subfamily was formerly treated as a separate family, Hyacinthaceae.[7] Prior to that it was placed in the tribe Hyacintheae of the family Liliaceae.

The precise number of Scilla species in the genus depends on which proposals to split the genus are accepted. Other proposals separate particularly the Eurasian species into a number of smaller genera such as Othocallis Salisb., e.g. Scilla siberica would become Othocallis siberica.

The common bluebell of British and European bluebell woods, still occasionally referred to by a former name, Scilla non-scripta, is now known as Hyacinthoides non-scripta. Several African species previously classified in Scilla have been removed to the genus Ledebouria. The best known of these is the common houseplant still sometimes known as Scilla violacea but now properly Ledebouria socialis.
Species

As of March 2020, Plants of the World Online accepted the following species:[8]

Scilla achtenii De Wild.
Scilla africana Borzí & Mattei
Scilla albanica Turrill
Scilla albinerve Yildirim & Gemici
Scilla alinihatiana Aslan & Yildirim
Scilla amoena L. – star squill, star hyacinth
Scilla andria Speta
Scilla antunesii Engl.
Scilla arenaria Baker
Scilla arsusiana Yildirim & Gemici
Scilla begoniifolia A.Chev.
Scilla benguellensis Baker
Scilla berthelotii Webb & Berthel.
Scilla bifolia L. – alpine squill
Scilla bilgineri Yildirim
Scilla bithynica Boiss. – Bithynian squill
Scilla buekkensis Speta
Scilla bussei Dammer
Scilla chlorantha Baker
Scilla ciliata Baker
Scilla cilicica Siehe
Scilla congesta Baker
Scilla cretica (Boiss. & Heldr.) Speta, syn. Chionodoxa cretica
Scilla cydonia Speta
Scilla dimartinoi Brullo & Pavone
Scilla dualaensis Poelln.
Scilla engleri T.Durand & Schinz
Scilla flaccidula Baker
Scilla forbesii (Baker) Speta, syn. Chionodoxa forbesii
Scilla gabunensis Baker
Scilla gracillima Engl.
Scilla haemorrhoidalis Webb & Berthel.
Scilla hildebrandtii Baker
Scilla huanica Poelln.
Scilla hyacinthoides L.
Scilla ingridiae Speta
Scilla jaegeri K.Krause
Scilla katendensis De Wild.
Scilla kladnii Schur
Scilla kurdistanica Speta
Scilla lakusicii Šilic
Scilla latifolia Willd. ex Schult.f.
Scilla laxiflora Baker
Scilla ledienii Engl.
Scilla leepii Speta
Scilla libanotica Speta
Scilla lilio-hyacinthus L. – Pyrenean squill
Scilla litardierei Breistr., syn. Chouardia litardierei, Scilla amethystina, Scilla pratensis, Scilla albanica, Scilla italica – amethyst meadow squill, Dalmatian scilla
Scilla lochiae (Meikle) Speta, syn. Chionodoxa lochiae
Scilla longistylosa Speta
Scilla luciliae (Boiss.) Speta, syn. Chionodoxa luciliae
Scilla lucis Speta
Scilla madeirensis Menezes – Madeiran squill
Scilla melaina Speta
Scilla merinoi S.Ortiz, Rodr.Oubiña & Izco
Scilla mesopotamica Speta
Scilla messeniaca Boiss.
Scilla mischtschenkoana Grossh., syn. Scilla tubergeniana – Tubergen squill
Scilla monanthos K.Koch
Scilla monophyllos Link
Scilla morrisii Meikle
Scilla nana (Schult. & Schult.f.) Speta, syn. Chionodoxa nana
Scilla nivalis Boiss.
Scilla oubangluensis Hua
Scilla paui Lacaita
Scilla peruviana L. – Portuguese squill, corymbose squill, Cuban lily
Scilla petersii Engl.
Scilla platyphylla Baker
Scilla pleiophylla Speta
Scilla pneumonanthe Speta
Scilla reuteri Speta
Scilla rosenii K.Koch
Scilla sardensis (Whittall ex Barr & Sugden) Speta, syn. Chionodoxa sardensis
Scilla schweinfurthii Engl.
Scilla siberica Andrews – Siberian squill
Scilla simiarum Baker
Scilla sodalicia N.E.Br.
Scilla subnivalis (Halácsy) Speta
Scilla tayloriana Rendle
Scilla textilis Rendle
Scilla uyuiensis Rendle.
Scilla vardaria Yildirim & Gemici
Scilla verdickii De Wild.
Scilla verna Huds. – spring squill
Scilla villosa Desf.
Scilla vindobonensis Speta
Scilla voethorum Speta
Scilla welwitschii Poelln.
Scilla werneri De Wild.

A hybrid has been named:

Scilla × allenii (G.Nicholson) Speta

Formerly included

Scilla autumnalis – autumn squill: see Prospero autumnale
Scilla maritima – sea squill: see Drimia maritima
Scilla nutans – common bluebell: see Hyacinthoides non-scripta
Scilla siehei – glory-of-the-snow: see Scilla forbesii

Cultivation and uses

Many Scilla species, notably S. siberica and members of section Chionodoxa, are grown in gardens for their attractive early spring flowers.
Etymology

Both the scientific genus name scilla and the common word squill derive, via French and Latin, from the Greek word σκίλλα skilla meaning squill, Urginea maritima.[9][10][11]
References

Scilla L., Sp. Pl.: 308 (1753), Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
WCSP (2018), World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, retrieved 2018-05-09, search for "Scilla"
Stevens, P.F., Angiosperm Phylogeny Website: Asparagales: Scilloideae
Sunset Western Garden Book (1995), Leisure Arts, pp. 606–607, ISBN 0376038519
Flora of North America, Scilla Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 308. 1753, efloras.org
Altervista Flora Italiana, genere Scilla includes European distribution maps
Chase, M.W.; Reveal, J.L. & Fay, M.F. (2009), "A subfamilial classification for the expanded asparagalean families Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceae and Xanthorrhoeaceae", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 161 (2): 132–136, doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00999.x
"Scilla L." Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2020-03-19.
"squill". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
scilla. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project.
σκίλλα. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.

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