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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Cichorioideae
Tribus: Cichorieae
Subtribus: Scorzonerinae
Genus: Tragopogon
Species: T. acanthocarpus – T. alaicus – T. albinervis – T. albomarginatus – T. altaicus – T. anatolicus – T. angustifolius – T. armeniacus – T. artvinensis – T. aureus – T. badachschanicus – T. bakhtiaricus – T. balcanicus – T. bjelorussicus – T. bombycinus – T. bornmuelleri – T. borystenicus – T. brevirostris – T. buphthalmoides – T. capitatus – T. caricifolius – T. castellanus – T. cazorlanus – T. charadzeae – T. coelesyriacus – T. colchicus – T. collinus – T. coloratus – T. conduplicatus – T. cretaceus – T. crocifolius – T. dasyrhynchus – T. dubius – T. dubjanskyi – T. elatior – T. elongatus – T. erostris – T. fibrosus – T. filifolius – T. floccosus – T. gaudanicus – T. gongylorrhizus – T. gorskianus – T. gracilis – T. graminifolius – T. hayekii – T. heteropappus – T. heterospermus – T. idae – T. jezdianus – T. karelinii – T. karjaginii – T. kasachstanicus – T. kashmirianus – T. kemulariae – T. ketzkhovelii – T. kindingeri – T. kopetdaghensis – T. kotschyi – T. kultiassovii – T. kurdistanicum – T. lainzii – T. lamottei – T. lassithicus – T. latifolius – T. leonidae – T. leucanthus – T. longifolius – T. macropogon – T. makaschwilii – T. malicus – T. marginatus – T. marginifolius – T. maroofii – T. maturatus – T. meskheticus – T. minor – T. mirus – T. miscellus – T. montanus – T. oligolepis – T. olympicus – T. orientalis – T. otschiaurii – T. paradoxus – T. pichleri – T. podolicus – T. porphyrocephalus – T. porrifoliusT. pratensis – T. pseudocastellanus – T. pseudomajor – T. pterocarpus – T. pterodes – T. pusillus – T. rechingeri – T. reticulatus – T. rezaiyensis – T. ruber – T. ruthenicus – T. sabulosus – T. samaritani – T. scoparius – T. segetus – T. serawschanicus – T. serotinus – T. sibiricus – T. soltisiorum – T. songoricus – T. sosnowskyi – T. stribrnyi – T. stroterocarpus – T. subacaulis – T. subalpinus – T. tanaiticus – T. tasch-kala – T. tomentosulus – T. tommasinii – T. trachycarpus – T. tuberosus – T. turcicus – T. turkestanicus – T. ucrainicus – T. undulatus – T. vaginatus – T. vanensis – T. verrucosobracteatus – T. vvedenskyi

Source(s) of checklist:

Hassler, M. 2019. Tragopogon. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2019. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Apr. 02. Reference page.


Tragopogon L., Sp. Pl. 2: 789 (1753).

Type species: Tragopogon porrifolius L. Lectotype designated by C. Díaz de la Guardia Guerrero et G. Blanca López, Regnum Veg. 127: 95 (1993).


Chromopappus Boriss.


Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus II: 789. Reference page.


Hassler, M. 2019. Tragopogon. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2019. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Apr. 02. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2019. Tragopogon. Published online. Accessed: Apr. 02 2019.
The Plant List 2013. Tragopogon in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Apr. 02.
Tropicos.org 2019. Tragopogon. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Apr. 02.

Vernacular names
العربية: تراجوبوجون
azərbaycanca: Yemlik
kaszëbsczi: Kòzobard
čeština: kozí brada
dansk: Gedeskæg
Deutsch: Bocksbärte
English: salsify, goatsbeard
eesti: Piimjuur
suomi: Pukinparrat
français: Salsifis, Salsifi
magyar: Bakszakáll, kecskedísz, zabgyökér
հայերեն: սինձ
Ido: Salsifio
日本語: トラゴポゴン属
ქართული: ფამფარა
қазақша: Қойжелкек
lietuvių: Pūtelis
Nederlands: morgenster
ирон: Сæгъыбоцъо
polski: Kozibród
русский: Козлобородник
slovenčina: kozobrada
svenska: Haverrotssläktet, Haverrötter
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Echkisoqol
中文: 婆罗门参属

Tragopogon, also known as goatsbeard[4] or salsify, is a genus of flowering plants in the sunflower family. It includes the vegetable known as salsify, as well as a number of common wild flowers. (Other species of unrelated plants in the Rosacea family are also known as Goatsbeard)

Salsifies are forbs growing as biennial or perennial plants. They have a strong taproot and milky sap. They generally have few branches, and those there are tend to be upright. Their leaves are somewhat grass-like. Flower colour varies within the genus, with some yellow species, and some bronze or purple. Seeds are achenes and are borne in a globe like that of a dandelion but larger, and are dispersed by the wind.

The salsifies are mostly natives of Europe and Asia, but several species have been introduced into North America and Australia and have spread widely there. There is one species sometimes considered native to North America, Tragopogon mirus, but it is in fact a hybrid of two non-native species.[5]

Some of the more common species of Tragopogon are known, in the regions where they are most common, by the common names goat's beard, goatsbeard, salsify, or common salsify, without further qualification. These names are therefore inherently ambiguous, and best avoided, or reserved for the genus collectively. In the species list below, the first common name given is the one that seems to be most widely used for that species and is not in significant use for any other species.

The vegetable called salsify is usually the root of the purple salsify, Tragopogon porrifolius; the root is described as having the taste of oysters (hence the alternative common name "oyster plant" for some species in this genus), but more insipid with a touch of sweetness. The young shoots of purple salsify can also be eaten, as well as young leaves [1]. Other species are also used in the same way, including the black or Spanish salsify, Scorzonera hispanica, which is closely related though not a member of the genus Tragopogon.


Salsifies are one example where hybrid speciation has been observed.[6][7] In the early 1900s, humans introduced three species of goatsbeard into North America. These species, the western salsify (T. dubius), the meadow salsify (T. pratensis), and the oyster plant (T. porrifolius), are now common in urban areas. In the 1950s, botanists found two new species in the regions of Idaho and Washington, where the three already known species overlapped. One new species, Tragopogon miscellus, is a tetraploid hybrid of T. dubius and T. pratensis. The other species, Tragopogon mirus, is also an allopolyploid, but its ancestors were T. dubius and T. porrifolius. These new species are usually referred to as "the Ownbey hybrids" after the botanist who first described them. The T. mirus population grows mainly by reproduction of its own members, but additional episodes of hybridization continue to add to the T. mirus population.[8]

Accepted species[9][10][11]

T. acanthocarpus Boiss
T. afghanicus Rech.f. & Köie
T. agrostiphyllus Rech.f. & Köie
T. alaicus Nikitin
T. albinerve Freyn & Sint.
T. albomarginatus Kitam.
T. altaicus S.A.Nikitin & Schischk.
T. angustissimus S.A.Nikitin
T. armeniacus Kuth.
T. artemczukii Klokov
T. aureus Boiss.
T. badachschanicus Boriss.
T. bakhtiaricus Rech.f.
T. balcanicus Velen.
T. barbirostris Bisch.
T. bjelorussicus Artemczuk
T. bornmuelleri G.B.Ownbey & Rech.f.
T. capitatus S.A.Nikitin
T. castellanus Levier
T. cazorlanum C.Díaz & Blanca
T. charadzeae Kuth.
T. clavulatus S.A.Nikitin
T. coelesyriacus Boiss.
T. colchicus Albov ex Grossh.
T. collinus DC.
T. coloratus C.A.Mey.
T. conduplicatus S.A.Nikitin
T. cretaceus S.A.Nikitin
T. crocifolius L.
T. cupani Guss. ex DC.
T. dasyrhynchus Artemczuk
T. dolichocarpus Klokov
T. duarius Chenev.
T. dubianskyi Krasch. & S.A.Nikitin
T. dubius Scop. – western salsify, western goat's beard, wild oysterplant, yellow salsify, yellow goat's beard, meadow goat's beard, goat's beard, goatsbeard, common salsify, salsify
T. elatior Steven
T. elongatus S.A.Nikitin
T. erostris Boiss. & Hausskn.
T. fibrosum Freyn & Sint. ex Freyn
T. filifolius Rehm. ex Boiss.
T. flexuosus Sosn. ex Grossh.
T. floccosus Waldst. & Kit. – woolly goatsbeard
T. gaudanicus Boriss.
T. glabrum G.Nicholson
T. gongylorrhizus Rech.f.
T. gracilis D.Don
T. graminifolius DC.
T. hayekii (Soó) I.Richardson
T. heteropappus C.H.An
T. hortensis Focke
T. humilis Fisch.
T. hybridus L. – pasture goatsbeard
T. idae Kuth.
T. iranicus Rech.f.
T. jesdianus Boiss. & Buhse
T. karelinii S.A.Nikitin
T. karjaginii Kuth.
T. kasahstanicus S.A.Nikitin
T. kashmirianus G.Singh
T. kemulariae Kuth.
T. ketzkhovelii Kuth.
T. khorasanicus Rech.f.
T. kindingeri Adamov
T. kopetdaghensis Boriss.
T. krascheninnikovii S.A.Nikitin
T. kultiassovii Popov ex S.A.Nikitin
T. kurdicus Blakelock
T. kurdistanicus Chrtek & Hadač
T. lassithicus Rech.f.
T. latifolius Boiss.
T. leiorhynchus Klokov
T. leonidae Kuth.
T. leucanthus Rech.f.
T. lamottei Rouy – jack-go-to-bed-at-noon
T. makaschwilii Kuth.
T. malikus S.A.Nikitin
T. marginatus Pavlov
T. melanantherus Klokov
T. meskheticus Kuth.
T. minor Mill.
T. mirabilis Rouy – Ontario goatsbeard
T. mirus Ownbey – remarkable goatsbeard
T. miscellus Ownbey – hybrid goat's-beard, Moscow salsify
T. moldavicus Klokov
T. montanus S.A.Nikitin
T. mutabilis Jacq.
T. nebrodensis Guss.
T. neglectum Hausskn.
T. olympicus Boiss.
T. orientalis L.
T. otschiaurii Kuth.
T. paradoxus S.A.Nikitin
T. parviflorus Trev.
T. perpusillus Arv.-Touv.
T. persicus Boiss.
T. phaeus Focke
T. pichlerii Boiss.
T. porphyrocephalus Rech.f.
T. porrifolius L. – salsify, purple salsify, oyster plant, common salsify, goatsbeard
T. praecox Focke
T. pratensis L. – jack-go-to-bed-at-noon, meadow salsify or goatsbeard
T. pseudocastellanus Blanca & C.Díaz
T. pseudomajus S.A.Nikitin
T. pterodes Pančić
T. pubescens Kit.
T. pusillus M.Bieb.
T. rechingeri G.B.Ownbey
T. reticulatus Boiss. & A.Huet
T. rezaiyensis Rech.f.
T. rhodanthus Sweet
T. ruber S.G.Gmel.
T. rumelicum Velen.
T. ruthenicus Besser ex Claus
T. sabulosus Krasch. & S.A.Nikitin
T. samaritani Heldr. & Sart.
T. savranicus Sobko
T. scopoli Vill.
T. segetus Kuth.
T. serawschanicus S.A.Nikitin
T. sibiricus Ganesch.
T. silesiacus Krock.
T. soltisiorum Mavrodiev
T. songoricus S.A.Nikitin
T. sosnowskyi Kuth.
T. stribrnyi Hayek
T. stroterocarpus Rech.f.
T. subacaulis O.Schwarz
T. subalpinus S.A.Nikitin
T. tanaiticus Artemczuk
T. tasch-kala Kuth.
T. tauricus Klokov
T. tesquicola Klokov
T. tomentosulus Boriss.
T. tommasinii Sch.Bip.
T. trachycarpus S.A.Nikitin
T. transcarpaticus Klokov
T. transsilvanicus Hayek
T. turkestanicus S.A.Nikitin
T. ucrainicus Artemczuk
T. vaginatus G.B.Ownbey & Rech.f.
T. verrucosobracteatus C.H.An
T. villosus L.
T. vulgaris Gueldenst.
T. vvedenskyi Popov
T. xanthantherus Klokov
T. × crantzii Dichlt. – Crantz's salsify
[ dubius × pratensis ]
T. × neohybridus Farw. – newhybrid salsify
[ porrifolius × pratensis ]

Formerly included[1]

The following species were once included in Tragopogon and are now regarded as better suited to other genera: Agoseris, Geropogon, Krigia, Lasiospora, Nothocalais, Podospermum, Scorzonera, Taraxacum, and Urospermum.

Flann, C (ed) 2009+ Global Compositae Checklist
lectotype designated by C. Díaz de la Guardia Guerrero et G. Blanca López, Regnum Veg. 127: 95 (1993)
Tropicos, Tragopogon L.
"Tragopogon". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
"2013 BONAP North American Plant Atlas. TaxonMaps". Biota of North America Program. Retrieved 26 May 2017.
Ownbey, M. 1950. Natural hybridization and amphiploidy in the genus Tragopogon. American Journal of Botany 37:487-499.
S.J. Novak, D.E. Soltis, & P.S. Soltis. 1991. Ownbey's Tragopogons Forty Years Later. American Journal of Botany 78:1586-1600.
Soltis, D. E., Soltis, P. S., Pires, J. C., Kovarik, A., Tate, J. A., & Mavrodiev, E. (2004). Recent and recurrent polyploidy in Tragopogon (Asteraceae): cytogenetic, genomic and genetic comparisons. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 82, 485-501.
"Name - Tragopogon L. subordinate taxa". Tropicos. Saint Louis, Missouri: Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved February 10, 2010.
GRIN. "Species in GRIN for genus Tragopogon". Taxonomy for Plants. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Retrieved February 10, 2010.
National Plant Data Center. "PLANTS Profile for Tragopogon (goatsbeard)". PLANTS. USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service. Retrieved February 10, 2010.

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