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Cuora yunnanensis (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Cladus: Archelosauria
Division: Pan-Testudines
Division: Testudinata
Ordo: Testudines
Subordo: Cryptodira
Superfamilia: Testudinoidea

Familia: Geoemydidae
Subfamilia: Geoemydinae
Genus: Cuora
Species: Cuora yunnanensis

Cuora yunnanensis (Boulenger 1906)
Types: Syntypes: BMNH 1946.1.22.97, 1946.1.22.98, 1946.1.22.99, 1946.1.23.1, 1946.1.23.2 and 1946.1.23.3.; Lectotype (designated by Blanck et al. 2006, Blanck 2005) BMNH 1946.1.22.97.
Type locality: "Yunnan fu" and "Tongchuan fu," Yunnan, China. Terra Typica designata: Tongchuan Fu = Zhongping (Huize)


Boulenger, G.A. 1906. Descriptions of new reptiles from Yunnan. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. (7) 17 (102): 567-568.
IUCN: Cuora yunnanensis (Boulenger, 1906) (Critically Endangered)
Cuora yunnanensis at the New Reptile Database

Vernacular names
čeština: Želva jünnanská
Deutsch: Yunnan-Scharnierschildkröte
English: Yunnan box turtle

The Yunnan box turtle (Cuora yunnanensis) is a species of turtle in the family Geoemydidae (formerly Bataguridae). It is believed to be endemic to Yunnan, China (in Kunming and Huize) and was suspected to be extinct since the early 20th century; the last verified specimen was collected in 1940.[4]
Plastron of a female Yunnan box turtle

In 2004, a living female appeared from the pet trade in Kunming; one year later, a male from the same source and again one year later another female were found there. The validity of these specimens was doubted and many believed they were intentionally produced hybrids,[5] a common technique in China to produce turtles that get high prices.

In 2007, He et al. sampled the three living specimens and gave the genetic proof that all three living specimens are indeed C. yunnanensis and not hybrids. In 2008, Kadoorie Conservation China, a department of Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden, together with the Kunming Institute of Zoology and Chinese Academy of Sciences, discovered a small wild population. The distribution of this species remains unclear, but due to its value, it is heavily sought after. Protection measures are needed to save this probably highly endangered species from its return onto the IUCN list of extinct animals.

van Dijk, P.P.; Blanck, T. & Lau, M. (2010). "Cuora yunnanens". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2010. Retrieved 12 April 2011.
"Appendices | CITES". Retrieved 2022-01-14.
Fritz Uwe; Peter Havaš (2007). "Checklist of Chelonians of the World" (PDF). Vertebrate Zoology. 57 (2): 219. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-05-01. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
Blanck, 2005, Blanck et al. 2006

(see IUCN 2006),

Blanck, T., Zhou, T. & W. P. McCord (2006): The Yunnan box turtle, Cuora yunnanensis (BOULENGER 1906); historical background and an update on the morphology, distribution and vulnerabilities of the only known living specimens. SACALIA 13 (4), 2006: 14-35
Blanck, T. (2005): Cuora yunnanensis (BOULENGER, 1906), the Yunnan Box Turtle, Rediscovered after One-hundred Years? CUORA Special - RADIATA 14 (2), 2005: 10-33
He J.,T. Zhou, Rao D.-Q. & Y.-P. Zhang.2007 Molecular identification and phylogenetic position of Cuora yunnanensis. Chinese Science Bulletin.52(17):2085-2088(in Chinese)
PARHAM, J. F., B. L. STUART, R. BOUR & U. FRITZ. 2004. Evolutionary distinctiveness of the extinct Yunnan box turtle (Cuora yunnanensis) revealed by DNA from an old museum specimen. – Proceedings of the Royal Society of Biology (Supplement), Biological Letters, London, 271: 391-394 + Electronic Appendix A, 6 pp.
ZHOU, T. & E. ZHAO (2004): On the occurrence of living Cuora yunnanensis since fifty-eight years and its description. . Sichuan J. Zool., Chengdu 23 (4): 325-327 + 1 Plate(in Chinese)
ZHOU, T. (2005): Discovery of a Living Male Yunnan Box Turtle, Cuora yunnanensis BOULENGER, 1906. Sichuan J. Zool., Chengdu 24 (3): 345-346 + 1 Plate(in Chinese)

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