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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Spiralia
Cladus: Lophotrochozoa
Phylum: Mollusca
Classis: Gastropoda
Subclassis: Caenogastropoda
Ordo: Neogastropoda
Superfamilia: Volutoidea

Familia: Volutidae
Subfamilia: Amoriinae
Tribus: Amorinii
Genus: Amoria
Species (22): A. damoni – A. dampieria – A. diamantina – A. ellioti – A. exoptanda – A. grayi – A. guttata – A. hunteri – A. jamrachi – A. kawamurai – A. macandrewi – A. maculata – A. molleri – A. necopinata – A. praetexta – A. rinkensei – A. spenceriana – A. turneri – A. undulata – A. volva – A. weldensis – A. zebra
Amoria Gray, 1855

Amoria is a taxonomic genus of medium-sized predatory marine gastropod in the family Volutidae.[1]

1 Distribution
2 Shell description
3 Biology
4 Fossil history
5 Taxonomy
6 References
7 External links


Amoria are found in onshore and offshore waters around the entire coast of Australia. Several species extend into offshore waters of southern Indonesia. The highest areas of diversity are in the intertidal and shallow subtidal waters of northern Western Australia followed by the subtidal waters around the Great Barrier Reef in Queensland.
Shell description

Amoria have a small, smooth, more or less pointed conical protoconch, a solid very glossy, fusiform shell and an elongate aperture with 4 distinct, more or less developed columellar plicae. The sutures are slightly callous. The colour pattern of the genus Amoria is variable, the base colour is white, yellow or pink with varying degrees or brown axial lines forming a pattern over the base colour. Axial lines may be free or may reticulate to form a tented pattern.[2]

The largest species Amoria hunteri reaches over 200 mm in length. The smallest species is probably Amoria dampieria frequently around 20 mm.

Amoria are nocturnal and prey on other gastropods and on bivalves. They generally inhabit areas with well sorted coarse sand. Some Amoria species have been noted to bite people when they are handled. The bite is followed by a mild sting, but no long-term effects have been noted.
Fossil history

The first Amoria appear in the Eocene and Late Miocene from Victoria. Judging from anatomical features, Amoria are close to the genus Cymbiola from which they descended in the Tertiary. Cymbiola are related to Tethyan species of the Late Miocene of Indonesia, Java.

Amoria includes 20-30 species. The following species have been recognized:

Amoria benthalis McMichael, 1964 - Queensland, New South Wales
Amoria canaliculata McCoy, 1869 - Queensland
Amoria chaneyi Morrison, 2012
Amoria damonii Gray, 1864 - Western and Northern Australia
Amoria dampieria Weaver, 1960 - Dampier Archipelago
Amoria diamantina Wilson, 1972 - Western Australia
Amoria ellioti (Sowerby II, 1864) - Western Australia
Amoria exoptanda (Reeve, 1849) - Southern Australia
Amoria grayi Ludbrook, 1953 - Western Australia
Amoria guttata McMichael, 1964 - Queensland
Amoria hansenae Morrison, 2012
Amoria hunteri (Iredale, 1931) - Eastern Australia
Amoria jamrachii Gray, 1864 - Western Australia
Amoria jansae van Pel & Moolenbeek, 2010
Amoria lineola Bail & Limpus, 2009
Amoria macandrewi (Sowerby III, 1887) - Western Australia
Amoria maculata (Swainson, 1822) - Eastern Australia
Amoria mihali H. Morrison, 2018
Amoria molleri (Iredale, 1836) - Queensland
Amoria necopinata Darragh, 1983 - Queensland
Amoria peterstimpsoni Cossignani & Allary, 2019
Amoria praetexta (Reeve, 1849) - Western Australia
Amoria rinkensi Poppe, 1986 - Northwestern Australia
Amoria ryosukei Habe, 1975 - Arafura, Timor Sea
Amoria simoneae Bail & Limpus, 2003
Amoria spenceriana (Gatliff, 1908) - Ashmore Reef
Amoria stricklandi Bail & Limpus, 2016
Amoria subfossilis Bail & Limpus, 2011
Amoria turneri (Griffith & Pidgeon, 1834) - Western and Northern Australia
Amoria undulata (Lamarck, 1804) - Western, Southern and Eastern Australia
Amoria volva [3]
Amoria weldensis Bail & Limpus, 2001 - Western Australia
Amoria zebra (Leach, 1814) - Eastern Australia

Species brought into synonymy

Amoria kawamurai Habe, 1975 - Arafura, Timor Sea: synonym of the subspecies Amoria grayi kawamurai Habe, 19
Amoria kingi Cox, 1871: synonym of Amoria undulata (Lamarck, 1804)
Amoria newmanae Cotton, 1949: synonym of Amoria turneri (Gray in Griffith & Pidgeon, 1834)

Many subspecific names have been created in the genus Amoria to distinguish colour variations in the shells of the species.

Bouchet, P.; Bail, P. (2012). Amoria Gray, 1855. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at on 2012-06-11
G.W. Tryon (1886), Manual of Conchology tome IV, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia

"Amoria volva". Retrieved 12 January 2019.

Wikispecies has information related to Amoria.

N.H. Ludbrook (1953), Systematic Revision of the Volutidid Genus Amoria, J. Mollus. Stud. 30 (4-5): 131-153.
Bail, P., Limpus, A. & Poppe, G. T. (2001): The Genus Amoria. In: Poppe, G. T. & Groh, K.: A Conchological Iconography. 50 pp., 93 plts. ConchBooks, Hackenheim, ISBN 3-925919-46-5.
Wilson, B. (1994): Australian marine shells 2. Odyssey Publishing, Kallaroo, Western Australia, ISBN 0-646-15227-0.

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