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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladi: Deuterostomia - Deuterostomia - Bilateria incertae sedis
Overview of phyla

Extant (32): Acanthocephala - Acoelomorpha- Annelida - Arthropoda - Brachiopoda - Ectoprocta - Chaetognatha - Chordata - Cycliophora - Dicyemida - Echinodermata - Entoprocta - Gastrotricha - Gnathostomulida - Hemichordata - Kinorhyncha - Loricifera - Micrognathozoa - Mollusca - Nematoda - Nematomorpha - Nemertea - Onychophora - Orthonectida - Phoronida - Platyhelminthes - Priapulida - Rotifera - Tardigrada - Xenacoelomorpha


Balavoine, G.; Adoutte, A. 1998: One or three Cambrian radiations? Science, 280: 397–398. [1]
Bourlat, S.J.; Nielsen, C.; Economou, A.D.; Telford, M.J. 2008: Testing the new animal phylogeny: a phylum level molecular analysis of the animal kingdom. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 49: 23–31.
Jondelius, U.; Ruiz-Trillo, I.; Baguñà, J.; Riutort, M. 2002: The Nemertodermatida are basal bilaterians and not members of the Platyhelminthes. Zoologica scripta, 31: 201–215.

Vernacular names
català: Nefrozou
čeština: Eubilateria
Deutsch: Nierentiere
English: Nephrozoa
euskara: Nephrozoa
français: Néphrozoaires, Eubilateria

Nephrozoa is a major clade of bilaterians, divided into the protostomes and the deuterostomes, containing almost all animal phyla and over a million extant species. Its sister clade is the Xenacoelomorpha. The Ambulacraria (conventionally deuterostomes) was formerly[dubious – discuss] thought to be sister to the Xenacoelomorpha, forming the Xenambulacraria as basal Deuterostomes, or basal Bilateria invalidating Nephrozoa and Deuterostomes in earlier studies.[1][2][3] The coelom, the digestive tract and excretory organs (nephridia), and nerve cords developed in the Nephrozoa.[4] It has been argued that, because protonephridia are only found in protostomes, they cannot be considered a synapomorphy of this group. This would make Nephrozoa an improper name, leaving Eubilateria as this clade's name.[5]

Chordates (which include all the vertebrates) are deuterostomes.[6] It seems very likely that the 555 million year old Kimberella was a protostome.[7][8] If so, this means that the protostome and deuterostome lineages must have split some time before Kimberella appeared — at least 558 million years ago, and hence well before the start of the Cambrian 538.8 million years ago.[6]


Xenacoelomorpha Proporus sp.png


Chordata Common carp (white background).jpg

540 mya

Echinodermata Portugal 20140812-DSC01434 (21371237591).jpg

Hemichordata Saccoglossus kowalevskii by Spengel 1893.png


Ecdysozoa Long nosed weevil edit.jpg

Spiralia Grapevinesnail 01.jpg

610 mya
650 mya


Philippe, Hervé; Poustka, Albert J.; Chiodin, Marta; Hoff, Katharina J.; Dessimoz, Christophe; Tomiczek, Bartlomiej; Schiffer, Philipp H.; et al. (2019). "Mitigating Anticipated Effects of Systematic Errors Supports Sister-Group Relationship between Xenacoelomorpha and Ambulacraria". Current Biology. 29 (11): 1818–1826.e6. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2019.04.009. hdl:21.11116/0000-0004-DC4B-1. ISSN 0960-9822. PMID 31104936. S2CID 155104811.
Marlétaz, Ferdinand (2019-06-17). "Zoology: Worming into the Origin of Bilaterians". Current Biology. 29 (12): R577–R579. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2019.05.006. ISSN 0960-9822. PMID 31211978.
Kapli, Paschalia; Telford, Maximilian J. (11 Dec 2020). "Topology-dependent asymmetry in systematic errors affects phylogenetic placement of Ctenophora and Xenacoelomorpha". Science Advances. 6 (10): eabc5162. doi:10.1126/sciadv.abc5162. PMC 7732190. PMID 33310849.
Cannon, Johanna Taylor; Vellutini, Bruno Cossermelli; Smith, Julian; Ronquist, Fredrik; Jondelius, Ulf; Hejnol, Andreas (2016). "Xenacoelomorpha is the sister group to Nephrozoa". Nature. 530 (7588): 89–93. Bibcode:2016Natur.530...89C. doi:10.1038/nature16520. PMID 26842059. S2CID 205247296.
"Animal Evolution: Interrelationships of the Living Phyla. Third Edition. By Claus Nielsen. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press ISBN: 978-0-19-960602-3 (hc); 978-0-19-960603-0 (pb). 2012". The Quarterly Review of Biology. 87 (3): 258. September 2012. doi:10.1086/666815. ISSN 0033-5770.
Erwin, Douglas H.; Eric H. Davidson (1 July 2002). "The last common bilaterian ancestor". Development. 129 (13): 3021–3032. doi:10.1242/dev.129.13.3021. PMID 12070079.
Fedonkin, M.A.; Simonetta, A; Ivantsov, A.Y. (2007), "New data on Kimberella, the Vendian mollusc-like organism (White sea region, Russia): palaeoecological and evolutionary implications", in Vickers-Rich, Patricia; Komarower, Patricia (eds.), The Rise and Fall of the Ediacaran Biota, Special publications, vol. 286, London: Geological Society, pp. 157–179, doi:10.1144/SP286.12, ISBN 9781862392335, OCLC 156823511

Butterfield, N.J. (December 2006). "Hooking some stem-group "worms": fossil lophotrochozoans in the Burgess Shale". BioEssays. 28 (12): 1161–6. doi:10.1002/bies.20507. PMID 17120226. S2CID 29130876.

Further reading
Balavoine, G. (17 April 1998). "EVOLUTION: One or Three Cambrian Radiations?". Science. 280 (5362): 397–398. doi:10.1126/science.280.5362.397. ISSN 0036-8075. S2CID 84468701.
Bourlat, S; Nielsen, C; Economou, A; Telford, M (October 2008). "Testing the new animal phylogeny: A phylum level molecular analysis of the animal kingdom". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 49 (1): 23–31. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2008.07.008. ISSN 1055-7903. PMID 18692145.
Jondelius, Ulf; Ruiz-Trillo, Inaki; Baguna, Jaume; Riutort, Marta (April 2002). "The Nemertodermatida are basal bilaterians and not members of the Platyhelminthes". Zoologica Scripta. 31 (2): 201–215. doi:10.1046/j.1463-6409.2002.00090.x. ISSN 0300-3256. S2CID 84015834.

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