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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Spiralia
Cladus: Lophotrochozoa
Phylum: Mollusca
Classis: Gastropoda
Subclassis: Heterobranchia
Infraclassis: Euthyneura
Cohors: Tectipleura
Subcohors: Panpulmonata
Superordo: Hygrophila
Superfamiliae (2): Chilinoidea – Lymnaeoidea

Hygrophila Férussac, 1822

Hemihomonym: Hygrophila (genus), R.Br.,(1810) - Lamiales, Plantae




Hygrophila (Gastropoda) in the World Register of Marine Species

Hygrophila is a taxonomic superorder of air-breathing freshwater snails, aquatic pulmonate gastropod mollusks within the clade Panpulmonata.[2] [1]

The families in this clade are basically air-breathing freshwater snails including freshwater limpets. The three families with the greatest number of species are the Lymnaeidae (pond snails), the Planorbidae (ramshorn snails) and the Physidae (pouch or bubble snails). These are found in ponds, creeks, ditches, and shallow lakes nearly worldwide.

The snails in this clade have their eyes located at the base of their tentacles, rather than at the tips, as in the true land snails Stylommatophora. They have shells that are thin, translucent, and relatively colorless, and they lack an operculum.

1997 taxonomy

In the older taxonomy of the Gastropoda (Ponder & Lindberg, 1997) these families were placed in the suborder Basommatophora.
2005 taxonomy

Hygrophila has been a clade in the informal group Basommatophora within the Pulmonata.[3]

Clade Hygrophila:

Superfamily Chilinoidea Dall, 1870
Family Chilinidae Dall, 1870
Family Latiidae Hutton, 1882
Superfamily Acroloxoidea Thiele, 1931
Family Acroloxidae Thiele, 1931
Superfamily Lymnaeoidea Rafinesque, 1815
Family Lymnaeidae Rafinesque, 1815
Superfamily Planorboidea Rafinesque, 1815
Family Planorbidae Rafinesque, 1815
Family Physidae Fitzinger, 1833

Note: what was previously the family Ancylidae has been demoted in the new taxonomy to the status of tribe Ancylini Rafinesque, 1815 within the subfamily Planorbinae Rafinesque, 1815 of the family Planorbidae Rafinesque, 1815.
2010 taxonomy

Basommatophora (Siphonarioidea and Amphiboloidea and Hygrophila) have been found polyphyletic and so Jörger et al. (2010)[2] have moved Hygrophila to Panpulmonata.
2020 taxonomy

A comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis of Hygrophila based on 3112 sites of the large subunit and 5.8S ribosomal RNA genes resulted in a proposal of a new taxonomic revision of the group.[4]

Chilinoidea Dall, 1870
Lymnaeoidea Rafinesque, 1815


Acroloxoidea Thiele, 1931: synonym of Lymnaeoidea Rafinesque, 1815
Planorboidea Rafinesque, 1815: synonym of Lymnaeoidea Rafinesque, 1815


MolluscaBase eds. (2020). MolluscaBase. Hygrophila. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: on 2020-12-14
Jörger K. M., Stöger I., Kano Y., Fukuda H., Knebelsberger T. & Schrödl M. (2010). "On the origin of Acochlidia and other enigmatic euthyneuran gastropods, with implications for the systematics of Heterobranchia". BMC Evolutionary Biology 10: 323. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-323.
Bouchet, Philippe; Rocroi, Jean-Pierre; Frýda, Jiri; Hausdorf, Bernard; Ponder, Winston; Valdés, Ángel & Warén, Anders (2005). "Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families". Malacologia. Hackenheim, Germany: ConchBooks. 47 (1–2): 1–397. ISBN 3-925919-72-4. ISSN 0076-2997.
Saadi, Ahmed J.; Davison, Angus; Wade, Christopher M. (2020). "Molecular phylogeny of freshwater snails and limpets (Panpulmonata: Hygrophila)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 190 (2): 518–531. doi:10.1093/zoolinnean/zlz177.

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