Superregnum: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Fungi
Phylum: Basidiomycota
Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
Classis: Agaricomycetes
Ordo: Polyporales
Familia: Ganodermataceae
Genus: Ganoderma
Species: G. amboinense - G. applanatum - G. brownii - G. lobatum - G. lucidum - G. multipileum - G. orbiforme - G. philippii - G. pseudoferreum - G. tornatum - G. tsugae - G. zonatum


Kadowaki, K.; Leschen, R.A.B.; Beggs, J.R. 2010: Periodicity of spore release from individual Ganoderma fruiting bodies in a natural forest. Australasian mycologist, 29(1): 17-23. PDF
Kadowaki, K.; Leschen, R.A.B.; Beggs, J.R. 2011: Spore consumption and life history of Zearagytodes maculifer (Broun) (Coleoptera: Leiodidae) on Ganoderma, its fungal host. New Zealand journal of ecology, 35(1): 61–68.

Ganoderma is a genus of polypore mushrooms which grow on wood and include about 80 species, many from tropical regions.[1] Because of their extensive use in traditional Asian medicines, and their potential in bioremediation, they are a very important genus economically. Ganoderma can be differentiated from other polypores because they have a double walled basidiospore. They are popularly referred to as shelf mushrooms or bracket mushrooms.


The name Ganoderma is derived from the Greek ganos/γανος "brightness, sheen", hence "shining" and derma/δερμα "skin".[2]

Ganoderma are characterized by basidiocarps that are large, perennial, woody brackets, also called "conks". They are lignicolous, leathery, and either with or without a stem. The fruit bodies typically grow in a fanlike or hooflike form on the trunks of living or dead trees. They have double-walled, truncate spores with yellow to brown ornamented inner layers.


The genus was named by Karsten in 1881.[3] Members of the family Ganodermataceae were traditionally considered difficult to classify because of the lack of reliable morphological characteristics, the overabundance of synonyms, and the widespread misuse of names.[4][5] Until recently, the genus was divided into two sections – Section Ganoderma with a shiny cap surface (like Ganoderma lucidum) and Elfvingia, with a dull cap surface, like Ganoderma applanatum.

Phylogenetic analysis using DNA sequence information derived from mitochondrial SSU rDNA, have helped to clarify our understanding of the relationships amongst Ganoderma species.[6][7] The genus may now be divided into six monophyletic groups:[8]

G. colossus group
G. applanatum group
G. tsugae group
Asian G. lucidum group
G. meredithiae group
G. resinaceum group

In 1905, American mycologist William Murrill delineated the genus Tomophagus to accommodate the single species G. colossus (then known as Polyporus colossus) which had distinctive morphological features that did not fit in with the other species.[9] Historically, however, Tomophagus has generally been regarded as a synonym for Ganoderma.[10] Nearly a century later, phylogenetic analyses vindicated Murrill's original placement, as it has shown to be a taxonomically distinct appropriate genus.[8]



Ganoderma are wood-decaying fungi with a cosmopolitan distribution, and can grow on both coniferous and hardwood species. They are white-rot fungi, and have enzymes that allow them to break down wood components such as lignin and cellulose. There has been significant research interest in trying to harness the power of these wood-degrading enzymes for industrial applications such as biopulping[11] or bioremediation.[12][13][14]

Ganoderma lucidum

Several species of Ganoderma have been used in traditional Asian medicines (specifically in Korea, Japan and China) for thousands of years. Collectively, the Ganoderma are being investigated for a variety of potential therapeutic benefits:

anticancer effects [15][16]
immunoregulatory effects[17][18]
antioxidant activities[19][20]
liver-protecting effects[21][22]
hypoglycemic effects[23][24]
antibacterial effects[25]
antiviral effects[26][27]
antifungal effects[28]
reducing blood cholesterol[29]
inhibiting blood vessel regeneration (angiogenesis)[30]
antifibrotic effects[31]
protection against radiation-induced damage [32]
reducing lower urinary tract symptoms [33]
increasing endurance for vigorous exercise [34]

Notable species

Ganoderma applanatum - Also known as the Artist's conch
Ganoderma lucidum - Also known as Reishi or Lingzhi
Ganoderma multipileum - the correct name for G. lucidum in tropical Asia
Ganoderma philippii - A plant pathogen
Ganoderma pseudoferreum - Responsible for the root rot of cacao, coffee, rubber and tea trees
Ganoderma tsugae - A polypore which grows on conifers, especially hemlock; thus the common name, Hemlock varnish shelf. Similar in appearance to Ganoderma lucidum, which typically grows on hardwoods.[35]

See also

Medicinal mushrooms

Article: What is ganoderma lucidum?


^ Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA. (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi. 10th ed. Wallingford: CABI. p. 272. ISBN 0-85199-826-7.
^ Liddell, Henry George and Robert Scott (1980). A Greek-English Lexicon (Abridged Edition). United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-910207-4.
^ Karsten PA. (1881). "Enumeratio Boletinearum et Polyporearum Fennicarum, systemate novo dispositarum" (in Latin). Revue mycologique, Toulouse 3 (9): 16–19.
^ Smith BJ, Sivasithamparam K. (2003). "Morphological studies of Ganoderma (Ganodermataceae) from the Australasian and Pacific regions". Australian Systematic Botany 16 (4): 487–503. doi:10.1071/SB02001.
^ Ryvarden L. (1985). "Type studies in the Polyporaceae 17: species described by W. A. Murrill". Mycotaxon 23: 169–198.
^ Hibbett DS, Donoghue MJ. (1995). Progress toward a phylogenetic classification of the Polyporaceae through parsimony analysis of mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences. Can J Bot 73(S1):S853–S861.
^ Hibbett DS, Thorn RG. (2001). Basidiomycota: Homobasidiomycetes. The Mycota VII Part B. In: McLaughlin DJ, McLaughlin EG, Lemke PA, eds. Systematics and evolution. Berlin-Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag. p 121–168.
^ a b Hong SG, Jung HS (2004). "Phylogenetic analysis of Ganoderma based on nearly complete mitochondrial small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences". Mycologia 96 (4): 742–55. doi:10.2307/3762108. JSTOR 3762108.
^ Murrill WA. (1905). "Tomophagus for Dendrophagus". Torreya 5: 197.
^ Furtado JS. (1965). "Ganoderma colossum and the status of Tomophagus". Mycologia 57 (6): 979–84. doi:10.2307/3756901. JSTOR 3756901.
^ "FBRI: New Enzymes for Biopulping". Retrieved 2008-11-15.
^ Matos AJ, Bezerra RM, Dias AA (September 2007). "Screening of fungal isolates and properties of Ganoderma applanatum intended for olive mill wastewater decolourization and dephenolization". Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 45 (3): 270–5. doi:10.1111/j.1472-765X.2007.02181.x. PMID 17718838.
^ Rigas F, Papadopoulou K, Dritsa V, Doulia D (February 2007). "Bioremediation of a soil contaminated by lindane utilizing the fungus Ganoderma australe via response surface methodology". J. Hazard. Mater. 140 (1-2): 325–32. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.09.035. PMID 17055642.
^ Joo SS, Ryu IW, Park JK, et al. (February 2008). "Molecular cloning and expression of a laccase from Ganoderma lucidum, and its antioxidative properties". Mol. Cells 25 (1): 112–8. PMID 18319622.
^ Yuen JW, Gohel MD (2005). "Anticancer effects of Ganoderma lucidum: a review of scientific evidence". Nutr Cancer 53 (1): 11–7. doi:10.1207/s15327914nc5301_2. PMID 16351502.
^ Hsu SC, Ou CC, Li JW, et al. (October 2008). "Ganoderma tsugae extracts inhibit colorectal cancer cell growth via G(2)/M cell cycle arrest". J Ethnopharmacol 120 (3): 394–401. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2008.09.025. PMID 18951965.
^ Lin ZB, Zhang HN (November 2004). "Anti-tumor and immunoregulatory activities of Ganoderma lucidum and its possible mechanisms". Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 25 (11): 1387–95. PMID 15525457.
^ Kuo MC, Weng CY, Ha CL, Wu MJ (January 2006). "Ganoderma lucidum mycelia enhance innate immunity by activating NF-kappaB". J Ethnopharmacol 103 (2): 217–22. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.08.010. PMID 16169168.
^ Kim MY, Seguin P, Ahn JK, et al. (August 2008). "Phenolic compound concentration and antioxidant activities of edible and medicinal mushrooms from Korea". J. Agric. Food Chem. 56 (16): 7265–70. doi:10.1021/jf8008553. PMID 18616260.
^ Wu Y, Wang D (November 2008). "A New Class of Natural Glycopeptides with Sugar Moiety-Dependent Antioxidant Activities Derived from Ganoderma lucidum Fruiting Bodies". J. Proteome Res. 8 (2): 436–42. doi:10.1021/pr800554w. PMC 2656399. PMID 18989955.
^ Wang X, Zhao X, Li D, Lou YQ, Lin ZB, Zhang GL (September 2007). "Effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide on CYP2E1, CYP1A2 and CYP3A activities in BCG-immune hepatic injury in rats". Biol. Pharm. Bull. 30 (9): 1702–6. doi:10.1248/bpb.30.1702. PMID 17827724.
^ Shi Y, Sun J, He H, Guo H, Zhang S (May 2008). "Hepatoprotective effects of Ganoderma lucidum peptides against D-galactosamine-induced liver injury in mice". J Ethnopharmacol 117 (3): 415–9. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2008.02.023. PMID 18406549.
^ Zhang HN, Lin ZB (February 2004). "Hypoglycemic effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides". Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 25 (2): 191–5. PMID 14769208.
^ Yang BK, Jung YS, Song CH (November 2007). "Hypoglycemic effects of Ganoderma applanatum and Collybia confluens exo-polymers in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats". Phytother Res 21 (11): 1066–9. doi:10.1002/ptr.2214. PMID 17600864.
^ Moradali MF, Mostafavi H, Hejaroude GA, Tehrani AS, Abbasi M, Ghods S (2006). "Investigation of potential antibacterial properties of methanol extracts from fungus Ganoderma applanatum". Chemotherapy 52 (5): 241–4. doi:10.1159/000094866. PMID 16899973.
^ Li Y, Yang Y, Fang L, Zhang Z, Jin J, Zhang K (2006). "Anti-hepatitis activities in the broth of Ganoderma lucidum supplemented with a Chinese herbal medicine". Am. J. Chin. Med. 34 (2): 341–9. doi:10.1142/S0192415X06003874. PMID 16552843.
^ Wang HX, Ng TB (September 2006). "A laccase from the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum". Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 72 (3): 508–13. doi:10.1007/s00253-006-0314-9. PMID 16636832.
^ Wang H, Ng TB (January 2006). "Ganodermin, an antifungal protein from fruiting bodies of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum". Peptides 27 (1): 27–30. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2005.06.009. PMID 16039755.
^ Hajjaj H, Macé C, Roberts M, Niederberger P, Fay LB (July 2005). "Effect of 26-oxygenosterols from Ganoderma lucidum and their activity as cholesterol synthesis inhibitors". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71 (7): 3653–8. doi:10.1128/AEM.71.7.3653-3658.2005. PMC 1168986. PMID 16000773.
^ Stanley G, Harvey K, Slivova V, Jiang J, Sliva D (April 2005). "Ganoderma lucidum suppresses angiogenesis through the inhibition of secretion of VEGF and TGF-beta1 from prostate cancer cells". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 330 (1): 46–52. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.02.116. PMID 15781230.
^ Park EJ, Ko G, Kim J, Sohn DH (April 1997). "Antifibrotic effects of a polysaccharide extracted from Ganoderma lucidum, glycyrrhizin, and pentoxifylline in rats with cirrhosis induced by biliary obstruction". Biol. Pharm. Bull. 20 (4): 417–20. doi:10.1248/bpb.20.417. PMID 9145221.
^ Pillai TG, Nair CKK, Janardhanan KK. (2008). Polysaccharides isolated from Ganoderma lucidum occurring in Southern parts of India, protects radiation induced damages both in vitro and in vivo. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 26(1):80-85.
^ Noguchi M, Kakuma T, Tomiyasu K, Yamada A, Itoh K, Konishi F, Kumamoto S, Shimizu K, Kondo R, Matsuoka K. (2008).Randomized clinical trial of an ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum in men with lower urinary tract symptoms. Asian Journal of Andrology 10(5):777-785.
^ Jung K, Kim IH, Han D (July 2004). "Effect of medicinal plant extracts on forced swimming capacity in mice". J Ethnopharmacol 93 (1): 75–81. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2004.03.022. PMID 15182908.
^ Kuo M., MushroomExpert.Com, Ganoderma tsugae. (2004, February). Retrieved June 15, 2007.

Fungi Images

Biology Encyclopedia

Retrieved from ""
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

Home - Hellenica World