Fine Art

Acer buergerianum

Acer buergerianum , Photo: Michael Lahanas

Taxonavigation: Sapindales
Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids II
Ordo: Sapindales

Familia: Sapindaceae
Subfamilia: Hippocastanoideae
Tribus: Acereae
Genus: Acer
Species: Acer buergerianum
Varietates: A. b. var. buergerianum – A. b. var. formosanum – A. b. var. horizontale – A. b. var. jiujiangense – A. b. var. kaiscianense – A. b. var. yentangense

Acer buergerianum Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 2: 88 (1865).
Additional references

Murray, A.E., 1970. A monograph of the Aceraceae. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University. Reference page.
Gelderen, D.M. van, Jong, & Oterdoom, H.J. 1994. Maples of the world. Timber Press, Portland, Or., 458 pp. ISBN 0-88192-000-2. Reference page.
Govaerts, R.H.A. 1995. World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2). 483, 529 pp. MIM, Deurne. ISBN 90-341-0852-X (issue 1) ISBN 90-341-0853-8 (issue 2). Reference page.
Hsu, T.Z., Chen, Y.S., Jong,, Oterdoom, H.J. & Chang, C.S. 2008. Acer. Pp. 537 in Wu, Zh.Y. , Raven, P.H. & Hong, D.Y. (eds.), Flora of China. Volume 11: Oxalidaceae through Aceraceae. Science Press, Beijing & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, ISBN 978-1-930723-73-3. efloras PDF Reference page.


Oldfield, S., Chen, Y. & Gibbs, D. 2018. Acer buergerianum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018. IUCN Red List Category: Least Concern. DOI: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T62936A3116830.en.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Acer buergerianum in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 7 January 2020.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Acer buergerianum in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 January 7. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2020. Acer buergerianum. Published online. Accessed: 7 January 2020.

Vernacular names
العربية: قيقب
čeština: Javor Bürgerův
Deutsch: Dreispitz-Ahorn
English: Trident Maple
français: Érable trident
italiano: Acero
日本語: トウカエデ
polski: Klon Bürgera
Türkçe: Çin akçaağacı
中文: 三角槭

Acer buergerianum (trident maple; simplified Chinese: 三角枫; traditional Chinese: 三角楓; pinyin: sānjiǎofēng) is a species of maple native to eastern China (from Shandong west to southeastern Gansu, south to Guangdong, and southwest to Sichuan), Taiwan and Japan.[2][3]


It is a small to medium-sized deciduous tree reaching a height of 5–20 m with a trunk up to 50 cm diameter. The leaves are in opposite pairs, 2.5–8 cm long (excluding the 2–5 cm petiole) and 3.5–6.5 cm broad, hard, glossy dark green above, paler below, usually with three lobes; on mature trees the lobes forward-pointing and with smooth margins, on young trees with more spreading lobes and serrated margins. The flowers are produced in spring, yellow-green, in pendulous corymbs; they are small, with five greenish sepals and five yellow-white petals about 2 mm long, and eight stamens. The fruit is a samara with two winged seeds, each seed 4–7 mm diameter, with a 15 mm wing; the wings are forward-pointing and often overlapping each other.[2][4][5]

The species is variable, and a number of varieties have been described:[2]

Acer buergerianum var. buergerianum. Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shandong, Zhejiang.
Acer buergerianum var. jiujiangense Z.X.Yu. Jiangxi.
Acer buergerianum var. horizontale F.P.Metcalf. Southern Zhejiang.
Acer buergerianum var. formosanum (Hayata ex Koidzumi) Sasaki. Taiwan (endemic).
Acer buergerianum var. kaiscianense (Pampanini) W.P.Fang. Gansu, Hubei, Shaanxi.
Acer buergerianum var. yentangense W.P.Fang & M.Y.Fang. Zhejiang.

A few trees have consistently unlobed leaves; these were first described as a variety A. trifidum var. integrifolium Makino (A. trifidum is an old synonym of A. buergerianum), but are now not distinguished from the species.[6] Occasional unlobed leaves also occur on most trees with otherwise normal three-lobed leaves.[7]


It is widely grown in temperate regions as an ornamental tree. It was introduced very early to Japan, where its name translates as "China maple".[5][8] More recently, it was introduced to Europe and North America in 1896, and is now occasionally grown in parks and large gardens there.[7] Mature examples may be seen at Westonbirt Arboretum in England, the Esveld Aceretum in Boskoop, Netherlands, Arnold Arboretum in Boston, Massachusetts and many other locations.[4]
Trident maple bonsai

Trident maple is a popular choice for the art of bonsai and responds well to techniques that create leaf reduction and ramification.[4] It is suitable for many style and sizes of bonsai.[9]


Several interesting cultivars have been developed, many of these bear Japanese names. Notable cultivars include 'Goshiki Kaede' (striking pink and green variegation), 'Kifu Nishiki' (roundish, almost un-lobed leaves), 'Mino Yatsubusa' (dwarf with long, narrow leaves) 'Mitsubato Kaede' (distinctive cork-like trunk) and 'Naruto' (strongly incurved leaf surface).[4]


The Plant List, Acer buergerianum Miq.
"Aceraceae". Flora of China (draft).
"Acer buergerianum". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 1 January 2018.
C.J. van Gelderen; D.M. van Gelderen (1999). Maples for Gardens: A Color Encyclopedia.
Rushforth, K. (1999). Trees of Britain and Europe. Collins. ISBN 0-00-220013-9..
Makino Herbarium, Tokyo: Acer trifidum
Mitchell, A. F. (1974). A Field Guide to the Trees of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins ISBN 0-00-212035-6
Kanon tree book: Acer buergerianum Archived 2009-06-30 at the Wayback Machine (in Japanese; google translation)
D'Cruz, Mark. "Ma-Ke Bonsai Care Guide for Acer buergerianum". Ma-Ke Bonsai. Archived from the original on 2011-07-14. Retrieved 2011-07-05.

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