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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Ordines: Apiales – Aquifoliales – Asterales – Berberidopsidales – Boraginales – Brassicales – Bruniales – Buxales – Caryophyllales – Celastrales – Cornales – Crossosomatales – Cucurbitales – Dipsacales – Ericales – Escalloniales – Fabales – Fagales – Garryales – Gentianales – Geraniales – Gunnerales – Huerteales – Icacinales – Lamiales – Malpighiales – Malvales – Metteniusales – Myrtales – Oxalidales – Paracryphiales – Picramniales – Proteales – Ranunculales – Rosales – Santalales – Sapindales – Saxifragales – Solanales – Trochodendrales – Vahliales – Vitales – Zygophyllales


Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2003. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141(4): 399–436. DOI: 10.1046/j.1095-8339.2003.t01-1-00158.x Open access Reference page.
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2009. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161(2): 105–121. DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x Open access Reference page.
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181(1): 1–20. DOI: 10.1111/boj.12385 Reference page.
Stevens, P.F. 2001 onwards. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14, July 2017 [and more or less continuously updated since]. Online. Reference page.
Chase, M.W. & Reveal, J.L. 2009. A phylogenetic classification of the land plants to accompany APG III. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161(2): 122–127. DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.01002.x Open access Reference page.
Soltis, D.E., Smith, S.A., Cellinese, N., Wurdack, K.J., Tank, D.C., Brockington, S.F., Refulio, N., Walker, J.B., Moore, M.J., Carlsward, B.S., Bell, C.D., Latvis, M., Crawley, S., Black, C., Diouf, D., Xi, Z., Rushworth, C.A., Gitzendanner, M.A., Sytsma, K.J., Qiu, Y.-L., Hilu, K.W., Davis, C.C., Sanderson, M.J., Beaman, R.S., Olmstead, R.G., Judd, W.S., Donoghue, M.J. & Soltis, P.S. 2011. Angiosperm phylogeny: 17 genes, 640 taxa. American Journal of Botany 98(4): 704–730. DOI: 10.3732/ajb.1000404 Open access Reference page.
Lohmueller, F.A. 2010. The Botanical System of the Plants [1] (Following APG III classification).
NCBI Taxonomy Browser,
eudicotyledons – Taxon details on National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). (Following APG classification, but stated as not authoritative).

Vernacular names
Afrikaans: nuwe tweesaadlobbiges
العربية: ثنائيات الفلقة الحقيقية
български: Еудикоти
català: Eudicotiledònia
čeština: vyšší dvouděložné
Cymraeg: Ewdicot
Deutsch: Dreifurchenpollen-Zweikeimblättrige
English: Eudicots
Esperanto: Verdukotiledonaj
español: Eudicotiledóneas
فارسی: دولپه‌ای‌های نو
français: Dicotylédones vraies
Gaeilge: Eudicotidae
galego: Eudicotiledóneas
Gaelg: Eudicotyledonae
हिन्दी: युडिकॉट
magyar: Valódi kétszikűek
Bahasa, Indonesia: Eudikotil
Ilokano: Eudicotidae
italiano: Eudicotiledoni
日本語: 真正双子葉類
Jawa: Eudicots
한국어: 진정쌍떡잎식물
македонски: Евдикоти
മലയാളം: യൂഡികോട്സ്
Bahasa Melayu: Eudikot
Nederlands: 'Nieuwe' tweezaadlobbigen
norsk nynorsk: Ekte tofrøbladingar
norsk: Egentlige tofrøbladede planter
occitan: Eudicotiledonèas
polski: Dwuliścienne właściwe
português: Eudicotiledôneas
Runa Simi: Kimsa khata sisayuq
română: Eudicotiledonate
русский: Эвдикоты
Scots: Eudicots
slovenčina: vyššie dvojklíčnolistové, trikolpátne
svenska: Trikolpater
తెలుగు: యుడికాట్స్
ไทย: พืชใบเลี้ยงคู่แท้
Tagalog: Eudicots
Türkçe: İki çenekliler
українська: Еудікоти
Tiếng Việt: Thực vật hai lá mầm thật sự
中文: 真双子叶植物

The eudicots, Eudicotidae or eudicotyledons are a clade of flowering plants mainly characterized by having two seed leaves upon germination.[1] The term derives from Dicotyledons.

Traditionally they were called tricolpates or non-magnoliid dicots by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the later evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots.[2]

Numerous familiar plants are eudicots, including many common food plants, trees, and ornamentals. Some common and familiar eudicots include: sunflower, dandelion, forget-me-not, cabbage, apple, buttercup, maple, and macadamia. Most leafy trees of midlatitudes also belong to eudicots, with notable exceptions being magnolias and tulip trees which belong to magnoliids, and Ginkgo biloba, which is not an angiosperm.


The close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was initially seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters. These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis.[3]

Later molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits. The term means "true dicotyledons", as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicots and have characteristics of the dicots. The term "eudicots" has subsequently been widely adopted in botany to refer to one of the two largest clades of angiosperms (constituting over 70% of the angiosperm species), monocots being the other. The remaining angiosperms include magnoliids and what are sometimes referred to as basal angiosperms or paleodicots, but these terms have not been widely or consistently adopted, as they do not refer to a monophyletic group.

The earlier name for the eudicots is tricolpates, a name which refers to the grooved structure of the pollen. Members of the group have tricolpate pollen, or forms derived from it. These pollens have three or more pores set in furrows called colpi. In contrast, most of the other seed plants (that is the gymnosperms, the monocots and the paleodicots) produce monosulcate pollen, with a single pore set in a differently oriented groove called the sulcus. The name "tricolpates" is preferred by some botanists to avoid confusion with the dicots, a nonmonophyletic group.[4]

The name "eudicots" (plural) is used in the APG systems (from APG system, of 1998, to APG IV system, of 2016) for classification of angiosperms. It is applied to a clade, a monophyletic group, which includes most of the (former) dicots.

"Tricolpate" is a synonym for the "Eudicot" monophyletic group, the "true dicotyledons" (which are distinguished from all other flowering plants by their tricolpate pollen structure). The number of pollen grain furrows or pores helps classify the flowering plants, with eudicots having three colpi (tricolpate), and other groups having one sulcus.[5][4]

Pollen apertures are any modification of the wall of the pollen grain. These modifications include thinning, ridges and pores, they serve as an exit for the pollen contents and allow shrinking and swelling of the grain caused by changes in moisture content. The elongated apertures/ furrows in the pollen grain are called colpi (singular colpus), which, along with pores, are a chief criterion for identifying the pollen classes.[6]

The eudicots can be divided into two groups: the basal eudicots and the core eudicots.[7] Basal eudicot is an informal name for a paraphyletic group. The core eudicots are a monophyletic group.[8] A 2010 study suggested the core eudicots can be divided into two clades, Gunnerales and a clade called Pentapetalae, comprising all the remaining core eudicots.[9]

The Pentapetalae can be then divided into three clades:

superrosids consisting of Saxifragales and rosids (the APG IV system includes the Vitales in the rosids)
superasterids consisting of Santalales, Berberidopsidales, Caryophyllales and asterids

This division of the eudicots is shown in the following cladogram:[10]

basal eudicots

(paraphyletic group: Ranunculales, Proteales, Trochodendrales, Buxales)

core eudicots









fabids (8 orders)

malvids (8 orders)









campanulids (7 orders)

lamiids (8 orders)

The following is a more detailed breakdown according to APG IV, showing within each clade and orders:[11]

clade Eudicots

order Ranunculales
order Proteales
order Trochodendrales
order Buxales
clade Core eudicots
order Gunnerales
order Dilleniales
clade Superrosids
order Saxifragales
clade Rosids
order Vitales
clade Fabids
order Fabales
order Rosales
order Fagales
order Cucurbitales
order Oxalidales
order Malpighiales
order Celastrales
order Zygophyllales
clade Malvids
order Geraniales
order Myrtales
order Crossosomatales
order Picramniales
order Malvales
order Brassicales
order Huerteales
order Sapindales
clade Superasterids
order Berberidopsidales
order Santalales
order Caryophyllales
clade Asterids
order Cornales
order Ericales
clade Campanulids
order Aquifoliales
order Asterales
order Escalloniales
order Bruniales
order Apiales
order Dipsacales
order Paracryphiales
clade Lamiids
order Solanales
order Lamiales
order Vahliales
order Gentianales
order Boraginales
order Garryales
order Metteniusales
order Icacinales


"EUDICOTS". Basic Biology. Basic Biology 2020. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
Endress, Peter K. (2002). "Morphology and Angiosperm Systematics in the Molecular Era" (PDF). Botanical Review. Structural Botany in Systematics: A Symposium in Memory of William C. Dickison. 68 (4): 545–570. doi:10.1663/0006-8101(2002)068[0545:maasit];2. JSTOR 4354438.
Furness, Carol A.; Rudall, Paula J. (March 2004). "Pollen aperture evolution – a crucial factor for eudicot success?". Trends in Plant Science. 9 (3): 154–158. doi:10.1016/j.tplants.2004.01.001. PMID 15003239.
Judd & Olmstead 2004
Sporne, Kenneth R. (1972). "Some Observations on the Evolution of Pollen Types in Dicotyledons". New Phytologist. 71 (1): 181–5. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.1972.tb04826.x.
Davis, Owen (1999). "Pollen Aperture Definitions". University of Arizona - Geosciences. Archived from the original on 2009-02-03. Retrieved 2009-02-16.
Worberg, A; Quandt, D; Barniske, A-M; Löhne, C; Hilu, KW; Borsch, T (2007). "Phylogeny of basal eudicots: insights from non-coding and rapidly evolving DNA". Organisms, Diversity and Evolution. 7 (1): 55–77. doi:10.1016/j.ode.2006.08.001.
Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Endress, Peter K.; Chase, Mark W. (2005). Phylogeny and Evolution of Angiosperms. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates. ISBN 9780878938179.
Moore, Michael J.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Bell, Charles D.; Burleigh, J. Gordon & Soltis, Douglas E. (2010). "Phylogenetic analysis of 83 plastid genes further resolves the early diversification of eudicots". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (10): 4623–8. Bibcode:2010PNAS..107.4623M. doi:10.1073/pnas.0907801107. PMC 2842043. PMID 20176954.
Based on:
Stevens, P.F. (2001–2014). "Trees". Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Retrieved 2014-11-17.
Stevens, P.F. (2001–2016). "Eudicots". Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Retrieved 2014-11-17.

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 181 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1111/boj.12385.


Doyle, J.A.; Hotton, C.L. (1991). "Diversification of early angiosperm pollen in a cladistic context". In Blackmore, S.; Barnes, S.H. (eds.). Pollen and Spores. Patterns of Diversification. Systematics Association Publications. Vol. 44. Clarendon Press. pp. 169–195. ISBN 9780198577461.
Judd, Walter S.; Olmstead, Richard G. (2004). "A survey of tricolpate (eudicot) phylogenetic relationships". American Journal of Botany. 91 (10): 1627–44. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1627. PMID 21652313.
Eudicots in Stevens, P. F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 7, May 2006.

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