Fine Art

Acronychia laevis fruit

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids II
Ordo: Sapindales

Familia: Rutaceae
Subfamilia: Amyridoideae
Genus: Acronychia
Species: Acronychia laevis

Acronychia laevis J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.

Characteres Generum Plantarum... 54, t. 27. 1775
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Acronychia laevis in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 07-Oct-06.

Acronychia laevis, commonly known as hard aspen, glossy acronychia or northern white lilly pilly,[2] is a species of shrub or small tree in the citrus family, and is endemic to eastern Australia. It has simple, elliptical to egg-shaped leaves, groups of creamy white flowers and fleshy, mitre-shaped to spherical fruit.


Acronychia laevis is a shrub or small tree that typically grows to a height of 12 m (39 ft). The trunk has fairly smooth, fawn bark with some vertical lines and wrinkles. The leaves are arranged in opposite pairs and are simple, elliptic to egg-shaped with the narrower end towards the base, 25–100 mm (0.98–3.94 in) long and 10–50 mm (0.39–1.97 in) wide on a petiole 3–30 mm (0.12–1.18 in) long. The leaves are shiny green on both sides with a blunt or rounded tip and have oil dots that may be seen using a lens and a bright light. The flowers are mainly arranged in leaf axils in cymes 15–70 mm (0.59–2.76 in) long, each flower on a pedicel 3.5–13 mm (0.14–0.51 in) long. The four sepals are 0.5–1.5 mm (0.020–0.059 in) wide, the four petals creamy white and 5–9 mm (0.20–0.35 in) long and the eight stamens alternate in length. Flowering occurs from February to June and the fruit is a fleshy mitre-shaped to more or less spherical, dark pink drupe 7–10 mm (0.28–0.39 in) long containing reddish-brown seeds about 4 mm (0.16 in) long.[2][3][4][5][6]

Acronychia laevis was first described in 1775 by German naturalists Johann Reinhold Forster and Georg Forster who published the description in their book Characteres Generum Plantarum.[7][8] The specific epithet laevis is the Latin adjective "smooth", and refers to the new shoots and leaves.[3]
Distribution and habitat

Hard aspen grows in dry rainforest and subtropical rainforest from sea level to an altitude of 1,100 m (3,600 ft). It is found from the upper Clarence River, New South Wales in New South Wales to Cape York Peninsula in Queensland, on New Caledonia and on Lord Howe Island.[2][5][9]

The fruit is eaten by the green catbird.[3]
Use in horticulture

Acronychia laevis can be grown in a sunny or part-shaded position in a garden. Its attractive fruit and flowers have horticultural appeal. It can be propagated from seed,[9] although cuttings may also be attempted. The fruit is edible to humans, although described as too pungent to be palatable,[10] and have even been likened to turpentine.[11]

"Acronychia laevis". Australian Plant Census. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
Hartley, Thomas G.; Wilson, Annette J.G. (ed.) (2013). Flora of Australia (Volume 26). Canberra: Australian Biological Resources Study. pp. 112–113. Retrieved 3 July 2020. {{cite book}}: |first2= has generic name (help)
Floyd, Alexander G. (2008). Rainforest trees of mainland south-eastern Australia (Revised ed.). Terania Rainforest Publishing. p. 345. ISBN 9780958943673.
Hartley, Thomas G. (1974). "A revision of the genus Acronychia (Rutaceae)". Journal of the Arnold Arboretum. 55 (3): 501–505. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
F.A.Zich; B.P.M.Hyland; T.Whiffen; R.A.Kerrigan (2020). "Acronychia laevis". Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants Edition 8 (RFK8). Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research (CANBR), Australian Government. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
Richards, P.G.; Harden, Gwen J. "Acronychia laevis J.R.Forst. & G.Forst". Royal Botanic Garden Sydney. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
"Acronychia laevis". APNI. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
Forster, Johann Reinhold; Forster, Georg (1775). Characteres Generum Plantarum. London: Prostant apud B. White, T. Cadell, & P. Elmsly. p. 54. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
Elliot, Rodger W.; Jones, David L.; Blake, Trevor (1982). Encyclopaedia of Australian Plants suitable for cultivation. (Volume 2). Port Melbourne, Victoria: Lothian Publishing. p. 292. ISBN 0-85091-143-5.
"Acronychia laevis (RUTACEAE); Glossy acronychia, hard aspen". Brisbane Rainforest Action & Information Network website. South Brisbane, Qld: Brisbane Rainforest Action & Information Network. 2007. Archived from the original on 15 February 2011. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
Geo. W. Thorpe (2004). "The Rainforest: Yes, It may be Copied". Australian Plants online. Australian Native Plants Society (Australia). Retrieved 3 July 2020.

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